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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
learning
an adaptive process in which the tendency to perform a particular behaviour is changed by experience
performance
the behavioural change produced by the internal changes brought about by learning
orienting response
any response by which an organism directs appropriate sensory organs (eyes, ears, nose) toward the source of a novel stimulus
habituation
the simplest form of learning; learning not to respond an unimportant event that occurs repeatedly.
classical conditioning
the process by which a response normally elicited by one stimulus (the UCS) comes to be controlled by another stimulus (the CS) as well.
unconditional stimulus (UCS)
in classical conditioning a stimulus such as food, that naturally elicits a reflexive response such as salivation.
conditional stimulus (UCR)
in classical conditioning a response such as salivation, that is natually elicited by the UCS
CONDITIONAL RESPONSE (CR)
in classical consitioning the response elicited by the cs
acquisition
in classical conditioning teh time during which a conditional response first appears and increses in frequency
extinction
in classical conditioning the elim,ination of a response that occurs when the conditional stimulus is repeatedly presented without being followed by teh unconditioned stimulus.
spontaneous recovery
after an interval of time, the reappearance of a response that had previously been extinguished
gerneralization
in classical conditioning, conditional responses elicited by stimuli that resemble the conditioned stimulus used in training (instead of responding to ring dog slso responds to different pitches and buzzes
discrimination
in classical conditioning teh appearnce of a conditioned response when one stimulus is presented (the CS+) but not another (the CS-)
phobia
unreasonable fear of specific objects such as insects. animals learned through classical conditioning
OPERANT CONDITIONING
a form of learning in which behavious is affected by its consequences. favourab;e consequences strengthen the behavious and unfavourable consequences weaken the behavious
law of effect
Throndike's odea that the consequences of a behaviour determine whether it is likely to be repeated
operant chamber or skinner box
an apparatus in wich an animal's behaviour can be easily observed, manipulated, and automatically recorded
cumulative recorder
a mechanical device connected to an operant chamber for the purpose of recording operant responses as they pccur in time
discriminative stimulus
in operant conditioning, teh stimulus that sets teh occasion for responding because in the past a behavious has produced certain consequences in teh presence of that stimulus
three term contingency
teh relation among discriminative stimuli, behavious, and the consequences of that behavious. a motivated organism emits a specific response in the presemce
positive reinforcement
an increse in the frequency of a response that is regularly and reliably followed by an apetitive stimuluis
negative reinforcement
an increse in teh frequency of a response that is regularly and reliably followed by teh termination of an aversive stimulus
punishment
a decrease in the frequency of a response that regularly and reliably followed by an aversive stimulus
response cost
a decrease in the frequency of a response that is regularly and reliably followed by teh termination of an apetitive stimulus.
extinction
a decrease in th frequency of a previously reinforced response because it is no longer followed by a reinforcer
shaping
the reinforcement of behavious that sucessively approximates the desired response until that response is fully acquired.
intremittenet reinforcement
the occasional reinforcement of a particular behaviour; produces responding that is more resistant to extinction
fixed-ratio schedule
a schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement occurs only after a fixed number of responses have been made since the previous reinforcement (or start of teh session)
variable ratio-schedule
a schedule of reinforcement similar to a fixed ratio schedule but characterized by a variable response requirement having a particular meaning
fixed-intreval schedule
a schedule of reinforcement in which the first response that is made after a fixed interval of time since the previous reinforcememnt is reinforced.
variable interbal schedule
a schedule of reinforcement similar to a fixed-interval schedule but characterized by a variable time requirement having a particular mean
generalization
in OPERANT CONDITIONING teh occurence of responding when a stimulus similar to the discriminative stimulus is present.
discrimination
IN OPERANT CONDITIONING responding only when a specific discriminative stimulus is present but not hen similar stimuli are present
primary reinforcer
a biologically significant appetitive stimilus such as food or water
primary punisher
a biologically significant aversive stimuli such as pain
conditioned or secondary reinforcer or punisher
a stimulus that acquires its reinforcing or punishing properties through association with a primary reinforcer (or punisher). sometimes refferred to as a secondary reinforcer (or punsiher)
escape response
an operant response acquired through negative reinforcement that terminates an aversive stimulus
avoidance response
an operant response acquired through negative reinforcement that prevents an aversive stimulus from occurring.
conditioned flavour aversion learning
a type of learning in wich a substance is avoided because its flavour has been associated wih illness