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37 Cards in this Set

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action potential
tiny electrical current that is generated when positive sodium ions rush inside the axon
all-or-none law
if an actional potential starts at the beginning of an axon, it will continue to the very end of the axon
glial cells
brain cells that provide scaffolding, insulation, chemicals to protect and support neural growth
ions
chemical particles with electrical charges
opposites attract
mind-body question
how can complex mental activities be generated by the physical properties of the brain?
nerve impulse
a series of separate action potentials that take place down the length of an axon
neuron
chemical keys with a special shape-fit with a chemical lock/receptor
neurotransmitters
brain cell with extensions to receive and transmit electric signals
phantom limb
when you can "feel" a limb that was amputated
reflex
unlearned, involuntary reaction to a stimulus--prewired
alzheimer's disease
incurable--
brain damage,
memory loss,
deterioration of personality
dendrites
branchlike extensions from cell body to receive and pass signals to cell body
end bulbs
miniature containers at extrememe ends of axon branches; store chemicals called neurotransmitters
Parkinson's disease
tremors, shakes, progressive slowing of voluntary movements with feelings of depression
sodium pump
keeps the axon charged by returning sodium ions outside the axon
stereotaxic procedure
put patient's head in a holder and drill a hole thru the skull, a syringe is guided to a brain area
synapse
small space between terminal button and adjacent dendrite, muscle fiber, or organ
autonomic nervous system
regulates heart rate, breathng, blood pressure--INVOLUNTARY movements
central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
carries information back and fortch between the brain and the body
cortex
thin lay of cells that covers forebrain

folds onto itself
forebrain
largest part of brain
right and left hemispheres
many functions
frontal lobe
large cortical area in the FRONT of the brain

like an executive
gene
if you don't know what this is, you're in trouble...

a specific segment on the DNA that contains instructions for building
MRI
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING

pass radio frequencies through brain and measure how signals interact with brain cells
peripheral nervous system
nerves that extend from the spinal cord

carry messages to and from muscles, glands, and sense organs
PET SCAN
positron emission tomography

measure a radioactive solution absorbed by brain cells

shows activity of various neurons
somatic nervous system
network of nerves that connect to sensory receptors or to muscles that are moved voluntarily
amygdala
forms, recognizes, and remembers emotional experiences and facial expressions
cerebellum
BACK OF THE BRAIN

coordinates but DOES NOT INITIATE voluntary movements
endocrine system
a main system

glands that secrete hormones
fight-flight response
increased physiological arousal helps the body cope with and survive threatening situations
gonads
glands that regulate sexual development and reproduction
homeostasis
keeps the body's level of arousal in balance for optimum functioning
limbic system
core of FOREBRAIN

motivation behaviors

organizes emotional behaviors
occipital lobe
processes visual information

sees colors and recognizes objects
parietal lobe
BEHIND FRONTAL LOBE

sense of touch, temperature, pain
temporal lobe
hearing, speaking coherently, understanding verbal and written material