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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
psychology is defined as the
scientific study of human and animal behavior and mental process
the majority of psychologists are
clinical psychologists
developmental psychologists are especially concerned with
changes that occur throughout the life span
couseling psychologists encourage their clients to
clarifty their goals, overcmoe adjustment problems, meet challenges
the mthod of learning that stresses examining one's own thoughts and feelings is
introspection
the contemportary psychoanalytic perspective stresses the influence of
conscious choice and self-direction
the school of behaviorism defined psychology as
the scientific study of observable behavior
one method that helps researchers gather information from many people is
a survey
to ensure that a sample represents a target population, researchers select
people at random from the target population
the longtiudinal method is concerned with observing
the ways in which people change over time
In a study of the ffects of caffeine on memory, participants drank a bottle of tasteless water containing 100, 50, or 0 milligrams of caffeine. The participants assigned to the group that got bottled water with no caffeine represented the ________.
control group
the cross-sectional metod charts changes over time by
comparing participants from different age groups
naturalistic observation is
observing the way people eat in restaurants
a placebo is often as effective as taking a medicine because
a person's expectations affect the rsults of a treatment
the man credited as the father of modern psychology for his work at the university of Leipzig in 1879
Wilhelm Wundt
Stanley Milgram's landmark study of 1962 caused the American Psychological Association to do what?
revise ethical guidelines
the term to describe an individual who aids the researcher in some form of deception during a study or experiment is what?
confederate
factor in an experiment that researchers manipulate so that they can determine its effect
independent variable
measure of how closely one thing is related to another
correlation
sample in which subgroups of a population are represented proportionally
stratified sample
educated guess
hypothesis
whole group that is the subject of a study
target population
group in an experiment that does not receive treatment
control group
study in which participants do not know wether they are receiving the treatment or not
single-blind study
in-depth investigation of an individual or small group
case study
substance or treatment that has no effect apart from a person's belief in it
placebo
research that has no immediate application is known as....
basic research
B.F. skinner's concept of _________ showed that an animal is more likely to repeat an action if rewarded for it.
reinforcement
_______ ______ founded psycholanalysis
Sigmund Freud
The _____ perspective argues that people can learn by experience and by observing toehrs
learning
the cognitive persepctive focuses on _____ processes to explain human behavior.
mental
stress and health are thought to have a ______ _____ since stress goes up ans health deteriorates, or goes down.
negative correlation
_______ _______ can slant the results of a survey because people who volunteer to participate in research studies often differ from people who do not volunteer
Volunteer bias
In an experiment, the _________ ________ is the factor that varies when the independent variable is changed
dependent variable
_________ __________ enables researches to study the behavior of people and animals in their everyday settings
naturalistic observation
in a _______ ______, neither the rearchers nor the participants know who is reiving the treatment.
experimental group
The _______ method takes much less time than the longitudinal method, but can accompish many of the same objectives.
cross-sectional
This person decribed the effects of segregation on white children as well as African-American children.
Kenneth Clark