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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
critical thinking
the process of assessing claims and making judgments on the basis of well-supported evidence
in scientific research, a prediciton stated as a specific, testable proposition about a phenomenon
operational definition
a statement that defines the exact operations or methods used in research
a factor or characteristic that is manipulated or measured in research
numbers that represent research findings and provide the basis for research conclusions
an integrated set of propositions that can be used to account for, predict, and even suggest ways of controlling certain phenomena
naturalistic observation
the process of watching without interfering as a phenomenon occurs in the natural environment
case study
a research method involving the intensive examination of some phenomenon in a particular individual, group, or situation
a research method that involves giving people questionnaires or special interviews designed to obtain descriptions of their attitudes, beliefs, opinions, and intentions
correlational study
a research method that examines relationships between variables in order to analyze trends in data, to test predictions, to evaluate theories, and to suggest new hypotheses
a situation in which the researcher manipulates one variable and then observes the effect of that manipulation on another variable, while holding all other variables constant
experimental group
in an experiment, the group that receives the experimental treatment
control group
in an experiment, the group that receives no treatment or provides some other baseline against which to compare the performance or response of the experimental group
independent variable
the variable manipulated by the researcher in an experiment
dependent variable
in an experiment, the factor affected by the independent variable
confounding variable
in an experiment, any factor that affects the dependent variable, along with or instead of the independent variable
random variable
in an experiment, a confounding variable in which uncontrolled or uncontrollable factors affect the dependent variable, along with or instead of the independent variable
random assignment
the procedure by which random variables are evenly distributed in an experiment by putting participants into various groups through a random process
a physical or psychological treatment that contains no active ingredient but produces an effect because the person receiving it believes it will
experimenter bias
a confounding variable that occurs when an experimenter unintentionally encourages participants to respond in a way that supports the hypothesis
double-blind design
a research design in which neither the experimenter nor the participants know who is in the experimental group and who is in the control group
the process of selecting participants who are members of the population that the researcher wishes to study
representative sample
a group of research participants whose characteristics fairly reflect the characteristics of the population from which they were selected
random sample
a group of research participants selected from a population each of whose members all had an equal chance of being chosen
biased sample
a group of research participants selected from a population each of whose members did not have an equal chance of being chosen