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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the capacity of the nervous system to aquire and retain usable skills and knowledge, allowing living organisms to benefit from experience
the 3 stage memory system that involves sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory
modal memory model
memory for sensory information that is stored briefly in its original sensory form
sensory memory
a limited capacity memory system that holds information in awareness for a brief period of time
short term memory
an active processing system that keeps different types of information available for current use
working memory
a relatively permanent storage of information
long term memory
the ability to recall items from a list depends on order of presentation, with items presented early or late in the list remembered than those in the middle
serial position effect
in a list, the better memory for items presented first
primacy effect
in a list, the better memory for words presented later in the list
recency effect
the process involved when people remember specific information
explicit memory
the cognitive information retrieved from explicit memory; knowledge that can be declared
declarative memory
memory for ones personal past experiences
episodic memory
memory for knowledge about the world
semantic memory
the process by which people show an enhancement of memory, most often through behavior, without deliberate effort and without any awareness that they are remembering anything
implicit memory
a type of implicit memory that involves motor skills and behavioral habits
procedural memory
the improvement in identifying or processing a stimulus that has previously been experienced
repetition priming
the processing of information so that it can be stored
the retention of encoded representations over time that corresponds to some change in the nervous system that registers the event
the act of recalling stored inforamtion in order to use it
a type of encoding that involves continually repeating an item
maintenance rehearsal
the encoding of information in a more meaningful fashion, such as linking it to knowledge in long-term memory
elaborative rehearsal
a hypothetical cognitive structure that helps us perceive, organize, and process information
any stimulus that is encoded along with an experience can later trigger memory for the experience
encoding specificity principle
a hypothetical process involving the transfer of contents from immediate memory into long-term memory
memory for the physical environment that includes such things as location of objects, direction, and cognitive maps
spatial memory
a mental disorder that involves frequent nightmares, intrusive thoughts, and flashbacks related to an earlier trauma
posttraumatic stress disorder
the inability to retrieve memory from long term storage
the pattern of forgetting over time
when prior information inhibits the ability to remember new information
proactive interference
when new information information inhibits the ability to remember old information
retroactive interference
the temporary inability to remember something that is known
when people experience great frustration as they try to recall specific words that are somewhat obscure
tip-of-the-tounge phenomenon
the inattentive or shallow encoding of events
deficits in long term memory that result from disease, brain injury, or psychological trauma
the condition in which people lose past memories for events, facts, people, or even personal information
retrograde amnesia
the inability to form new memories
anterograde amnesia
vivid memories for the circumstances in which one first learned of a surprising, consequential, and emotionally arousing event
flashbulb memories
memory distrotions that occur when people misremember the time, place, person, or circumstances involved with a memory
source misattributions
a type of misappropriation that occurs when people think they have come up with a new idea, yet have only retrieved a stored idea and failed to attribute the idea to its proper source
the develpment of biased memories when people are provided with misleading information
a type of amnesia that occurs when a person shows memory for an event but cannot remember where he or she encountered the information
source amnesia
the false recollection of episodic memory