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115 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Learning
A relatively permanent change in behavior or mental processes resulting from practice or experience
Conditioning
THe process of learning associations between environmental stimuli and behavioral responses
Classical Conditioning
Learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus becomes paired with an unconditioned stimulus to elicit a conditioned response
Unconditioned Stimulus
Stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response without previous conditioning
Unconditioned Response
Unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning
Neutral Stimulus
A stimulus that, before conditioning, does not naturally bring about the response of interest
Conditioned Stimulus
Previously neutral stimulus that, through repeated pairings with an unconditioned stimulus, now causes a conditioned response
Conditioned Response
Learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous repeated pairings with an unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned Emotional Response
A classically conditioned emotional response to a previously neutral stimulus
Stimulus Generalization
Learned response to stimuli that are like the original conditioned stimulus
Stimulus Discrimination
Learned response to a specific stimulus but not to other, similar stimuli
Extinction
Gradual weakening or suppression of a previously conditioned response
Spontaneous Recovery
Reappearance of a previously extinguished conditioned response
Higher-Order Conditioning
A neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus through repeated pairings with a previously conditioned stimulus
Operant Conditioning
Leaning in which voluntary responses are controlled by their consequences (also known as instrumental or Skinnerian conditioning)
Reinforcement
Strengthens a response and makes it more likely to recur
Punishment
Weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur
Law of Effect
Thorndike's rule that the probablility of an action being repeated is strengthened when it is followed by a pleasant or satisfying consequence
Primary Reinforcers
Stimuli that increase the probablity of a response because they satisfy a biological need, such as food, water, and sex
Secondary Reinforcers
Stimuli that increase the probability of a response because of their learned value, such as money and material possessions
Positive Reinforcement
Adding (or presenting) a stimulus, which strengthens a response and makes it more likely to recur
Negative Reinforcement
Taking away (or removing) a stimulus, which strengthens a response and makes it more likly to recur
Premack Principle
Using a naturally occurring high-frequency response to reinforce and increase low-frequency responses
Continuous Reinforcement
Every correct response is reinforced
Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement
Some, but not all, correct responses are reinforced
Fixed Ratio Schedule
Reinforcement occurs after a predetermined set of responses; the ratio is fixed
Variable Ratio Schedule
Reinforcement occurs unpredictably; the ratio varies
Fixed Interval Schedule
Reinforcement ocurs after a predetermined time has elapsed; the interval (time) is fixed
Variable Interval Schedule
Reinforcement occurs unpredictably; the interval (time) varies
Shaping
Reinforcement delivered for sucessive approximations of the desired response
Positive Punishment
Adding (or presenting) a stimulus that weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur
Negative Punishment
Taking away (or removing) a stimulus that weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur
Discriminative Stimulus
A cue that signals when a specific response will lead to teh expected reinforcement
Cognitive-Social Theory
Emphasizes the roles of thinking and social learning in behavior
Insight
Sudden understanding of a problem that implies the solution
Cognitive Map
A mental image of a three-dimensional space that an organism has navigated
Latent Learning
Hidden learning that exists without behavioral signs
Observational Learning
Learning new behavior or information by watching others (also known as social learning or modeling)
Taste Aversion
A classically conditioned negative reaction to a particular taste that has been associated with nausea or other illness
Biological Preparedness
Built-in readiness to form associations between certain stimuli and responses
Instinctive Drift
Conditioned responses shift back toward innate response patterns
Memory
An internal record or representation of some prior event or experience
Constructive Process
Organizing and shaping of information during processing, storage, and retrieval of memories
Encoding
Translating information into neural codes (language)
Storage
Retaining neurally coded information over time
Retrieval
Recovering information from memory storage
Parallel Distributed Processing
Memory results from weblike connections among interacting processing units operating simultaneously, rather than sequentially (also known as the connectionist model)
Levels of Processing
The degree or depth of mental processing that occurs when material is initially encountered determines how well it's later remembered
Sensory Memory
First memory stage that holds sensory information; relatively large capacity, but duration is only a few seconds
Short-Term Memory
Second memory stage that temporarily stores sensory information and decides whether to send it on to long-term memory; capacity is limited to five to nine items and duration is about 30 seconds
Maintenance Rehearsal
Repeating information over and over to maintain it in short-term memory
Chunking
Grouping separate pieces of information into a single unit
Long-Term Memory
Third stage of memory that stores information for long periods of time; its capacity is virtually limitless, and its duration is relatively permanent
Explicit (Declarative) Memory
Subsystem within long-term memory that consciously stores facts, information, and personal life experiences
Semantic Memory
A part of explicit/declarative memory that stores general knowledge; a mental encyclopedia or dictionary
Episodic Memory
A part of explicit/declarative memory that stores memories of personally experienced events; a mental diary of a person's life
Implicit (Nondeclarative) Memory
Subsystem within long-term memory that consists of unconscious procedural skills, simple classically conditioned responses, and priming
Priming
Prior exposure to a stimulus (or prime) facilitates or inhibits the processing of new information, even when one has no conscious memory of the initial learning and storage
Elaborative Rehearsal
Linking new information to previously stored material (also known as deeper levels of processing)
Retrieval Cue
A clue or prompt that helps stimulate recall or retrieval of a stored peice of information from long-term memory
Recognition
Retrieving a memory using a specific cue
Recall
Retrieving a memory using a general cue
Encoding Specificity Principle
Retrieval of information is improved when conditions of recovery are similar to the conditions when information was encoded
Relearning
Learning material a second time, which usually takes less time than original learning (also called the savings method)
Retroactive Interference
New information interferes with remembering old information; backward-acting interference
Proactive Interference
Old information interferes with remembering new information; forward-acting interference
Consolidation
Process by which neural changes associated with recent learning become durable and stable
Tip-of-the-Tongue Phenomenon
Feeling that specific information is stored in long-term memory but of being temporarily unable to retrieve it
Serial Position Effect
Information at the beginning and end of a list is remembered better than material in the middle
Source Amnesia
Forgetting the true source of a memory (also called source confusion or source misattribution)
Sleeper Effect
Information from an unreliable source, which was initially discounted, later gains credibility because the source is forgotten
Distributed Practice
Practice (or study) sessions are interspersed with rest periods
Massed Practice
Time spent learning is grouped (or massed) into long, unbroken intervals (also known as cramming)
Long-Term Potentiation
Long-lasting increase in neural excitability, which may be a biological mechanism for learning and memory
Retrograde Amnesia
Loss of memory for events before a brain injury; backward-acting amnesia
Anterograde Amnesia
Inability to form new memories after a brain injury; forward-acting amnesia
Alzheimer's Disease
Progressive mental deterioration characterized by severe memory loss
Mnemonic Device
Memory-improvement technique based on encoding items in a special way
Cognition
Mental activities involved in acquiring, storing, retrieving, and using knowledge
Mental Image
Mental representation of a previously stored sensory experience, including visual, auditory, olfactory, tactile, motor, or gustatory imagery
Concept
Mental representation of a group or category that shares similar characteristics
Prototype
A representation of the "best" or most typical example of a category
Algorithm
A set of steps that, if followed correctly, will eventually solve the problem
Heuristics
Strategies, or simple rules, used in problem solving and decision making that do not guarantee a solution but offer a likely shortcut to it
Mental Set
Persisting in using problem-solving strategies that have worked in the past rater than trying new ones
Functional Fixedness
Tendency to think of an object functioning only in its usual or customary way
Confirmation Bias
Preferring information that confirms preexisting positions or beliefs, while ignoring or discounting contradictory evidence
Availability Heuristic
Judging the likelihood or probablility of an event based on how readily available other instances of the event are in memory
Representativeness Heuristic
Estimating the probablity of something based on how well the circumstances match our previous prototypes
Creativity
The ability to produce valued outcomes in a novel way
Divergent Thinking
Thinking that produces many alternatives or ideas; a major element of creativity
Convergent Thinking
Narrowing down a list of alternatives to converge on a single correct answer
Language
Form of communication using sounds and symbols combined according to specified rules
Phoneme
Smallest basic unit of speech or sound
Morpheme
Smallest meaningful unit of language formed from a combination of phonemes
Grammar
Rules that specify how phonemes, morphemes, words, and phrases should be combined to express thoughts
Syntax
Grammatical rules that specify how words and phrases should be arranged in a sentence to convey meaning
Semantics
Meaning, or the study of meaning, derived from words and word combinations
Cooing
Vowel-like sounds infants produce beginning around 2 to 3 months of age
Babbling
Vowel/consonant combinations that infants begin to produce at about 4 to 6 months of age
Overextension
Overly broad use of a word to include objects that do not fit the word's meaning
Telegraphic Speech
Two- or three-word sentences of young children that contain only the most necessary words
Overgeneralize
Applying the basic rules of grammar even to cases that are exceptions to the rule
Language Acquisition Device
According to Chomsky, an innate mechanism that enables a child to analyze language and extract the basic rules of grammar
Intelligence
Global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with the environment
Fluid Intelligence
Aspects of innate intelligence, including reasoning abilities, memory, and speed of information processing, that are relatively independent of education and tend to decline as people age
Crystallized Intelligence
Knowledge and skills gained through experience and education that tend to increase over the life span
Standardization
Establishment of the norms and uniform procedures for giving and scoring a test
Reliability
A measure of the consistency and stability of test scores when the test is readministered
Validity
Ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure
Savant Syndrome
A condition in which a person with mental retardation exhibits exceptional skill or brilliance in some limited field
Stereotype Threat
Negative stereotypes about minority groups cause some members to doubt their abilities
Developmental Psychology
Study of age-related changes in behavior and mental processes from conception to death
Maturation
Development doverned by automatic, genetically predetermined signals
Critical Period
A period of special sensitivity to specific types of learning that shapes the capacity for future development