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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables
any measureable conditions, events, traits, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study
operational definition
describes the actions or operations that will be used to measure or control a variable
participants (subjects)
persons/animals whose behavior is systematically observed in a study
data collection techniques
procedures for making empirical observations and measurements
periodical that publishes technical and scholarly material, usually in a narrowly defined area of inquiry
research method in which the investigato manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes the results
research methods
consist of various approaches to the observation, measurement, manipulation, and control of variables in empirical studies
independent variables
condition/events that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable
dependent variables
variable thought to be affected by manipulation of the independent variable
experimental group
consists of subjects who receive special treatment in regard to the independent variable
control group
consists of subjects who do not receive special treatment
extraneous variables
any variables other than the independent variable that seem likely to influence the dependent variable in a specific study
confounding of variables
occurs when two variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their specific effects
random assignment
all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group or condition in the study
naturalistic observation
researcher engages in careful observation of behavior without intervening directly with the subjects
case study
an in-depth investigation of an individual subject
where researchers use questionnaires or interviews to gather info about specific aspects of participants' background and behavior
use of math to organize, summarize, and interpret numerical data
descriptive statistics
used to organize and summarize data
score that falls exactly in the center of a distribution of scores
arithmetic average of the scores in a distribution
most frequent score in a distribution
how much the scores in a data set vary from each other and from the mean
standard deviation
an index of the amount of variability in a set of data
exists when two variables are related to each other
correlation coefficient
numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables
inferential statistics
used to interpret data and draw conclusions
statistical significance
exists when the probability that the observed finding are due to chance is very low
repetition of a study to see whether the earlier results are duplicated
collection of subjects selected for observation in an empirical study
much larger collection of animals or people (from which the sample is drawn) that researchers want to generalize about
sampling bias
exists when a sample is not representative of the population from which it was drawn
placebo effect
occurs when participants' expectations lead them to experience some chance even though the receive empty, fake, or ineffectual treatment
social desirability bias
a tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself
response set
tendency to respond to questions in a particular way that is unrelated to the content of the questions
experimenter bias
occurs when a researcher's expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained
double-blind procedure
research strategy in which neither subjects nor experimenters know which subjects are in the experimental or control groups