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75 Cards in this Set

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Who was Baldwin?
Attachment style is only the average of all one's relationships with people.
What is press?
Social & environmental influences on one's needs.
What are the correlation caveats?
1) Relationship btw 2 variables may be due to a 3rd variable.

2) Correlation is NOT causation.
What is a primary need?
Based on biology: sleep, food...
Traits are...
Global tendencies to behave, think and feel in a certain way.
What is a need?
Push/pull. Something unsatisfying inside.
Who was Sir Francis Galton?
Started nature vs. nurture debate. (Sided with nature.) Studied whether intelligence runs in families.

Conceptualized idea of correlational coefficient.
What is a secondary need?
Psychologically based: power, intimacy, achievement.
What is nomothetic?
Relating to the universal and to the formulation of general laws that explain a range of phenomena. Contrast with idiographic.
What is motivation?
Internal states that impel people to goal-oriented action.
What is psychological hedonism?
Approach, or pursuit of pleasure

Avoid, or withdrawal from pain
Who was Kurt Lewin?
- "Father" of social psychology
- psychology in situ
- situations are v powerful forces affecting behavior
- situations are only as powerful as they are perceived to be
- therefore some situations may be perceived differently by two different people -> different behavioral responses
What are the main criticisms of the Big Five?
- group level of analysis
- self-report & factor analysis methods
- static, doesn't demonstrate situation
- doesn't predict anything
What might explain why women have greater erotic plasticity?
- male strength and power, both physical and economic
- change and female sexual scripts: females now control paternity
- differential sex drive or control of sex drive: women have milder sex drives
Who are Costa and McCrae?
Five-Factor Model
1) Neuroticism: the more neurotic you are, the more anxious you are, and the more somatic complaints you have.
2) Extraversion: the more extraverted you are, the more close friends you have
3) Openness to New Experiences: the more open you are, the higher is your GPA
4) Agreeableness
5) Conscientiousness
What were Baumeister's three empirical predictions concerning erotic plasticity of behavior?
- women will show greater intra-individual variability in sexual behavior
- sociocultural factors will have a greater impact on women's sexuality
- sexual attitudes & behaviors are less consistent for women than for men
How is continuity maintained?
1) Environmental stability: Behaviour may be PRODUCT or CAUSE of stable individual differences.
2) Genetic stability: based on twin studies, up to 80% of personality may be based on genes.
3) Person-Environment transactions: evocative; proactive; reactive
What would Freudian psychologists say is the core of personality?
Instinctual, inborn, unconscious impulses and needs.
What are Lewis's criticisms regarding personality continuity?
- correlation is smaller than you'd accept
- greater continuity in self-reports
- behavior influenced by immediately environment instead of past events. divorce study.
What would behavioral psychologists say constitutes the core of personality?
One's learned and reinforced responses to certain environmental stimuli.
What are person-environment transactions?
- Evocative: smiley, attractive people evoke positive responses
- Proactive: seek out best environment for you -> continuity
- Reactive: schema
What is bystander intervention?
- we tend to believe people are helpful, but experiments show they aren't
- Kitty Genovese, Martell Welch
What is genetic stability?
Based on twin studies, up to 80% of personality may be due to genes.
What are sociocultural factors concerning erotic plasticity?
- females show greater cross-cultural variation in sexual behavior
- acculturated female Hispanic immigrants are more liberal than male counterparts; also more liberal than unacculturated immigrants
What would situation theorists think about the person vs. situation debate?
- personal traits are categories people use to make sense of their worlds, but doesn't predict stability of behavior across situations and time.
- behavior depends on situation
- if people act the same across situations, it's bcause
1) ppl tend to be in similar situations
2) ppl tend to perceive certain situations as equivalent
3) similar behavior is expected to lead to similar consequences
What do trait theorists think about the person vs. situation debate?
- person's traits are stable across situations and time
- pattern of dispositions determine behavior
- can infer someone's disposition by viewing their behavior (e.g. questionnaire)
What are the benefits of longitudinal studies?
Change over time, impact of historical events (and variations thereof), cohort
What is the interactionist view to the person vs. situation debate?
- behavior is always an interaction btw. person & situation
- some behavior is more person-determined; others more situation-determined
- important to look for patterns of stability and change in behavior across distinct situations
What were Milgram's experiments?
- to explain the behavior of Nazis
- 1950s: shock @ higher levels of voltage for incorrect answer
- 68% went all the way to 450v
- psychologists polled before test predicted only 1% would go al the way
- participants felt in such powerful situation -> compelled to act contrary to their nature
What is Mischel's social cognitive view?
- observations of children at summer camp
- behavior coded in v. specific interpersonal situations
- 5 categories of behavior: verbal aggression, physical aggression...
- results: each child had distinctive situation-behavior profile. could use it to predict behavior.
- the more similar the situations were, the more consistent the behaviors.
- therefore, each child had a BEHAVIORAL SIGNATURE.
What are educational factors concerning erotic plasticity?
- highly educated groups endorse liberal sexual practices more than poor groups
= greater magnitude of difference between educated women and poorly educated women
How do we calculate heritability?
HC = (MZr - DZr) * 2
What are the limitations of longitudinal studies?
- select sample of people who'd be willing to participate
- attrition
- confound age, cohort, period
- questionable comparability of instruments (Q's at age 3 diff from at age 5)
- effects of being in a longitudinal study--makes people more self-conscious about lives.
Hierarchy of motive units
Immediate goals -> personal strivings -> Major life goals -> Values -> Global aspirations
What is personality?
ENDURING characteristics of a person that account for CONSISTENT patterns of emotion, attitudes, and behavior.
What were Zimbardo's experiments?
- shocking people in hoods vs. wearing nametags
- Stanford prison experiment
What is the fundamental attribution error?
Underestimate influence of situational factors on other people's behavior and overattribute ppl's actions to dispositional rather than situational factors.

Doesn't occur in empathetic people and East Asians.
What is absolute continuity?
- absolute quantity or amount over time
- changes over time
What is Rotter's value theory?
BP = f(E and RV)
In a given situation, what you are likely to do depends on:
(1) what you THINK you can do
(2) how much you WANT it
What is differential continuity?
- relative rank of individuals, regardless of absolute levels
What are the core questions regarding the continuity of personality?
All trait-based.

- How EARLY can we tell?
- WHEN is personality fully developed?
- What TYPES of continuity do we see?
- How is continuity MAINTAINED?
- How does CHANGE come about?
What is homeotypic continuity?
Exactly the same behavior
- differential
- absolute
- ipsative
What are the basic needs?
Achievement
Power
Intimacy
What did Block do?
Lives Through Time
- sampled studied in junior high, HS, age 30
- California Q-set
- variability in ipsative continuity
men: mean .77, but ranged from -.01 to 1.00
women: mean .71, but ranged from -.02 to 1.00
What is ipsative continuity?
- ranking of attributes within an individual (I'm more neurotic than I am conscientious...)
- Block: Lives Through Time
What is heterotypic continuity?
Conceptual continuity, but different manifestations.
Genotypic attributes underlies diverse phenotypic behaviors
e.g. child persistence -> academic achievement
What is the basic underlying assumption of the motive units of personality?
Human behavior is best understood as a reflection of underlying needs. Therefore, behavior changes as individuals' needs change.
What is the California Q-Set?
Tester sorts cards along distribution from least to most characteristic
100 statements
Look at correlation in ratings across time periods.
What life-course factors moderate continuity and change in personality?
- Biosocial transitions (puberty, marriage). Alter absolute, but not rank-order. If expected, may result in change. If unexpected, may accentuate personality.
- Historical factors
What is ideographic?
In psychology, relating to investigative procedures that consider the unique characteristics of a single person, studying them in depth, as in the case study. Contrast with nomothetic.
What is Impression formation and social perception?
- categorization: we spontaneously categorize the people we meet; pos. traits take time to stick
- confirmatory bias: we tend to look for information that reinforces our initial impression of a person
- attribution theory: how we make inferences about ppl's true nature
What is the "strange situation"?
(Ainsworth)
Infant, 1 yr, place din unfamiliar setting with stranger, both in presence and absence of infant's caregiver. To observe the behavior of infant in relation to mother under
conditions of an unfamiliar setting, in presence and absence of a stranger, and under conditions of separation and reuniting with mother.
Who was Mary Ainsworth?
Found different types of attachment styles, associated with different parenting styles.
"Strange Situation"
Tested infant attachment in Uganda.
What is the secure attachment style? How does it relate to adult attachment styles?
Parenting: sensitive

Child: mother as secure base; misses with separation; greets parent; wants contact when upset; after comforted, returns to play.

Adult: collaborative discourse; values attachment, but objectivce. consistent description.
Who was Goldberg?
- tested Fundamental Lexical Hypothesis (can find units of personality in language): Language reflects reality.
- Big Five Factors
What happens if mothers are insensitive to their infants? What are ramifications for adult attachment style?
Child: Insecure. Explores, more interested in toys than mother; stiffens if picked up.

Adult: Not coherent; dismissing of attachment, normalizing; excessively brief.
What happens if mothers are inconsistent with their infants? What are the ramifications for adult attachment style?
Child: Insecure. Distressed when mother enters room; doesn't explore; angry when separated; focuses on mother, not toys.

Adult: Not coherent; angry; passive, fearful; excessively long.
Who was Kim Bartholomew?
Attachment during Adulthood
- Relatinship Questionnaire: 4 questions, parallel attachment styles in infancy
- dismissing, secure, fearful, preoccupied
Who was Allport?
- valued the "uniqueness of the person"
- held complex views of personality
- creator of the "idiographic approach"
- believed that expression of traits depended on situation
- came up with 10 basic units of personality. By extracting logest list of person-related terms from Webster Dictionary, and then grouped into 4 basic categories (gen. personal tendencies, moods & mental states, social evaluations of character, physical qualities)
What is Pearson's correlation coefficient?
r is between -1 and 1. Measures relationship btw two sets of data.
What is the definition of Factor Analysis?
- summarizes interrelations among set of variables (e.g. items in a questionnaire) collapsed to clusters
- used to identify groups, clusters, "factors" of related items
- these clusters assumed to be basic characteristics of personality
Who was Catell?
- looked for periodic table of elements for personality
- like Eysenck, relied on factor analysis
- concerned with dynamics of personality
- 16 Personality Factors
What are the limitations of Factor Analysis?
- FACTORS DEFINED BY RESEARCHER
- factors depend on what you include in analysis
- factors are often difficult to interpret
Are heritability and inheritability the same thing?
No. We're talking about the difference between population percentages and individuals.
What is the Oedipus Complex?
In Freudian theory, the desire and conflict of the four-year-old male child who wants to possess his mother sexually and to eliminate the father rival. The threat of punishment from the father causes repression of these id impulses. Conflict in little boys between their love for their mothers, their jealousy of their fathers, and their fear that their fathers will punish them for loving their mothers. Girls have a similar sexual desire for the father which is repressed in analogous fashion and is called the Electra complex.
What were Freud's contributions to personality psychology?
- psychic origins of behavior (id, ego, superego)
- unconscious
- instincts or dries (humans have impulses that must be rechannelled to be socially constructive)
- early experience
What is the id?
- pleasure principle: seeking pleasure, avoiding pain
- system from which all energy comes
- biological sources
- no sense of reality
What is the superego?
- conscience, moral ideals from parents
What is the ego?
- executive: helps id get what it wants within constraints of reality
- reality principle
What is attachment theory?
(Bowlby)
- infants have innate desire to form bond with caregiver, for its own survival
- "attachment propensity" is mutual; infant tries to make itself lovable, mother is drawn to infant.
- forms internal working models during infancy that determine adult attachment styles (e.g., insecure, secure)
What is validity? What are its components?
Measure captures what it's supposed to.

- Discriminant: tests what it's supposed to and not other confounding variables.
- Convergent: related to what it's supposed to.

To be valid, a measure must be reliable.
What is reliability? What are its components?
- Inter-rater: two observers record same data
- Test-retest: get same measurement every time you test

A test can be reliable but not valid.
Who was Eysenck?
- emphasized the scientific study of traits
- viewed traits as hierarchical, biologically baesd.
- meta-trait -> traits (avg of responses across diff situations) -> habitual responses in situation -> specific response at moment
What are the limitations of studies of genetic influences on personality, based on twin studies?
- HC only applies to sample studied. most tests are culturally homogenous, in michigan.
- influences of environment is often assumed but not explicitly measured.
- we don't know how genetic predispositions are expressed.
- don't discuss gene-environment interaction (shared vs non-shared environments)
- we don't know what's being inherited. HC is not the same as inheritability.
- additive effect: combination of genes may amplify effect, cancel each other out, or change one another. they don't work in a linear fashion.
What is heritability?
Variation in a population due to genes.