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40 Cards in this Set

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Anterograde amnesia
the loss of memories concerning events that occur post-injury. For example, a person who sustained a head injury during a car wreck may forget what he/she bought at the grocery store, what they ate for breakfast, or any other event/s that happened after the accident.
a gradual conversion of information into durable memory codes that are stored in our long-term memory. It is believed that the hippocampus and amygdala play major roles in this. While many believe that this occurs in the subcortical structures of the limbic system, these memories essentially end up where they first began—in the area which originally processed their sensory input.
Interference theory
the idea that information is not forgotten simply because it has been lost, but rather, other information has gotten in the way of what it is trying to be recalled. For example, retrieving information regarding a recipe for brownies may interfere with a recipe for chocolate fudge.
Long-term memory (LTM)
the part of our memory that has an unlimited capacity and can store information for an indefinite amount of time. Despite some suggestions (flashbulb memories, hypnosis recollections, ESB “memories”) that this is permanent, those same suggestions have flaws that lead scientists to believe otherwise.
in the LTM, groups consisting of related items. Example: rose, daisy, tulip= flowers
Conceptual hierarchies
in the LTM, a system with multiple levels where items are classified by common properties.
semantic networks
in the LTM, nodes of concepts connected to relating concepts.
Mnemonic devices
are tools such as rhymes, riddles, or formulas that aid in the ability to recall and maintain information. For example, “‘i’ before ‘e’ except after ‘c’” addresses a common English spelling mistake
the mental burial of unwanted thoughts into the unconscious. People repress thoughts that cause them grief, guilt, and anxiety. Despite asserting much effort into make such thoughts disappear, people are continually influenced by them. Freud believed that this was a defense mechanism and that compulsions, tics, slips of the tongue, and dreams could all be influenced by the unwanted thoughts.
Retroactive interference
the disruption in the retrieval of previously learned information due to the presence of information learned at a later time period. In short, this interference is when new learning interferes with old learning. For example, a person who usually drives an automatic car recently learned how to drive a manual; when he/she goes back to driving an automatic car, the information they learned about driving a manual may interfere with the retrieval of how to drive an automatic.
Retrograde amnesia
the loss of memories concerning events that occurred prior to injury. For example, the car-wreck victim may forget what happened on his/her 20th birthday (or any birthday for that matter), former vacation trips, or what high school was like. Memories from as little as a month ago or as long as a lifetime can be forgotten once under the influence of this
Serial-position effect
refers to the fact that when given a list, people are most likely to remember information from the beginning and the end more so than in the middle. For example, when given a list of words such as, “dog, tree, telephone, bear, ribbon, cheese, truck, button,” the words “dog,” “tree,” “truck,” and “button” are more likely to be recalled than “telephone,” “bear,” “ribbon,” or “cheese.”
Short-term memory (STM)
part of our memory that has the ability to store a limited amount of unrehearsed information for a limited amount of time (usually 20-30 seconds).this memory holds about seven pieces of information, but retention can be increased by forming information in to seven “chunks”.
Visuospatial sketchpad
in the STM, allows us to momentarily hold and manipulate visual images.
Executive control system
in the STM, controls the information which we hold during decision making and reasoning.
achievement motive
refers to the motivation to surpass others in mastery, performance, and excellence. The need for achievement is likely a product of social training and is thought to influence scientific progress, economic growth, inspirational leadership and mastery in creative arts.
male sex hormones such as testosterone and androsterone. A lack of testosterone results in a decreased sex drive; a raise in testosterone results in an increased sex drive.
a substance such as an oyster, chocolate, or Vitamin E that has been thought to positively influence the human sex drive.
people who seek both emotional and sexual relationships with members of the same sex
Cognitive components (subjective feelings)
the way we judge and assess the events of our lives determines our emotional experiences. For example, various forms of competition may excite some people, but also scare others. Some events even trigger a mix of emotions, like a mother’s joy and nervousness at the birth of her new baby.
Physiological components (autonomic arousals)
the perspiration, increased heart rate, and rapid breathing we may experience when confronting a nerve-racking situation are controlled by the autonomic nervous system which then triggers hormonal releases that further influence our emotional responses. Our brain takes part in this situation by controlling the accompanying autonomic responses and prompting emotions by stimulating activity in various areas of the brain.
the group of female sex hormones. An elevation of these hormones will cause an elevation in a female’s sexual reception. these levels do not correlate with a female’s sexual interest, but high levels of testosterone are shown to increase interest in both sexes.
Galvanic skin response (GSR)
refers to our skin’s increase in electrical conductivity that occurs when the activity of our sweat glands is increased.

is the result of autonomic arousal and is easily used to measure emotion
the body’s state of balanced functioning and stability. Our bodies adapt and manipulate in order to maintain constant function. The most common example of this maintenance is in body temperature. When our body temperature significantly increases, we become hyperthermic and begin to sweat; when our body temperature significantly decreases, we become hypothermic and begin to shiver. In both cases, our bodies are adjusting in ways to influence the maintenance of a normal body temperature
is a type of goal-oriented behavior that exists almost everywhere.
a chemical that is naturally secreted by animals and has an affect on the behavior of other animals.

these are typically detected by smell and primarily influence sexual behavior.

While these have not been shown to have any such effects on humans or primates, they have been linked to the synchronization in female menstruation cycles.
Refractory period
the length of time (which ranges from minutes to hours) following orgasm during which males are significantly unresponsive to further stimulation.
the need to fulfill one’s potential. Self-actualization is the highest point on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Maslow believed that if people are unable to put their talents to use (an excellent cook who works as a car salesman, for example), their self-actualization will be frustrated. Very few people reach this state
the study of human (and all other organisms’) behavior based on genetics, evolution, and the idea of natural selection.

—introduced in 1975 by Edward Wilson—believes that genes which provide maximum reproduction and the advantage of survival shape behavior to favor the passing of such genes. For example, many mammalian females seek out the strongest, largest males to mate with in order to increase the chances for stronger, larger offspring who are more likely to survive. The application of such concepts to humans is up for debate; many believe that on humans, this overestimates the influence of biology and underestimates the influence of culture
Aptitude tests
are tests that assess and measure mental and intellectual capabilities. these tests provide a systematic way to evaluate how people perform tasks and react to situations. On example of this test is the Differential Aptitude Test which measures numerical ability, perceptual accuracy and speed, verbal reasoning, mechanical reasoning, spelling/language usage and space relations.
Content validity
the ability of a test’s content to measure what it intends to represent or measure
Divergent thinking
a type of thinking that tries to find multiple possibilities, alternatives, and possible solutions. For example, in trying to create a recipe for the perfect chocolate chip cookie, one must think of many possible ways to tweak the recipe into perfection
means “well born”; it is the belief that improvements upon human heredity can be made through the process of selective reproduction. Sir Francis Galton thought that intellectually superior people should reproduce with other intellectually superior people in order to encourage a progression in human intelligence. Furthermore, Galton believed that those with a lesser intelligence should be prohibited from reproducing.
Factor analysis
the analysis of the correlations among a large amount of variables in order to identify clusters of closely related variables. this analysis attempts to find any hidden influences that may be leading to high correlations between variables. During his analysis of the structure of intellect, Charles Spearman discovered that specific mental abilities were highly correlated with one another and therefore concluded that all cognitive abilities share a common core.
Intelligence quotient (IQ)
measured by a test, is the ratio of a person’s mental age to their chronological age (multiplied by 100).
Normal distribution
symmetrical, bell-shaped curve which serves as a pattern to which many characteristics of the population are disbursed. A (average scored) trait will fall in the middle of the curve, as do most cases. The distribution of other, less frequent (above or below averaged scored) cases gradually declines as one moves away from the center of the curve in either direction. The concept of this was first discovered by 18th-century astronomers who found that their measurement errors were distributed in the form of a bell-shaped curve.
percentile score
represents the percentage of other test-takers who scored at or below one’s own score.
the measurement of the consistency of results from a test or any other measurable technique
the set of procedures that ensures fair and equal test-assessment conditions for each individual. Questions, timing, administration, instructions, and scoring are all standardized during tests to allow for meaningful comparisons of test results
the ability for a test to measure what it intends to measure. In order for tests to be taken seriously, evidence that indicates that a test measures what it claims to measure must be presented. A test which claims to measure the gasoline efficiency of cars would not be valid if it was performed using motorcycles