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59 Cards in this Set

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Sensation
process by which the sense organs take in information about the enviroment
Perception
closely related experience to senation
takes in information, organises and interprets it
Proximal vs distol stimuli
what the retina sees light waves...sound waves

what is actually out in the enviroment, stimulation that lies in the distance...can be effected by bias and expectations
Transduction
stimlues transformed into something the brain can understand....electrical impulse
psychophysics
the frist form of psychology interested in the study of/characteristics of stimulation and our perception of it

fechner
measurement problems in stimules perception
its easy to measure the amount of stimules sucj as light but its hard to mesaure perceptions of light..so you study reports of change
thresholds
finding limits or deviding points between energy levels that do and do not have an effect

fechner "how mugh light in a dark room before you can see it?"
Absolute threshold
50% detection, how far can something be turned up before it is reconised 50% of the time...minimum amount of detection
Just Noticable Difference
How much of an increase needs to be made before its noticed
Webers law
and propotions
the JND goes up in porportion to the increased stimules
vision 60
weight 30
pressure 7
taste 3
Fechners law
the more a stimules goes up the harder it is to detect
perception can not be measured in absolute scales
JND goes up beyond absolute threshold
signal detection theory
detection of stimules...descion making process..sensation incluence by variety of factors
sublimina perception
registration of stimaltion without concious awareness
sensory adaption
prolonged exposure to sensation leads to less sensitivy
visual system:
amplitude
length
purity
heigh=brightness
lenght=colour
purity=saturation
lens and pupil
lens:transperent focuses light on retina
pupil:controls amount of light entering eye
contrict-less light-sharp image
open-more light-less sharp image
Retina,rods and cones
Retina..neaural tissue on back of the eye...absorbs light..processes images
hole formed from where optic nerves hit eye

rods and cones...back layer of retina...recive 10% of light. rods..rhodopsin perifery, dim light

cones...idopsin..day light and colour..center of eye
Primary Visual Pathway
rods and cones-neaural links-bipolar cells-ganglion cells-axons of ganglion cells (optic nerve)-thalamus-visual cortext occipital lobe--rest of brain
nearsightedness
eyeball too long
behind retina
farsightedness
eyeball too short
infront of retina
optic nerve
optic chasem
axons connect eye with brain at the optic disc

chasem:point where optic nerve splits and crosses over to either half of the brain assures that vison goes to both halves
fovea
all cones
best vision spot
dark adaptation
and light adapation
dark: increased sensitivity to light in low illumination

Light:decreased sensitivity to light in high illumination
Optic nerve
brain connect to eye from optic disc
Optic chasem and 2 visual paths
the poitn which the optic nerve splits into opposite
two halves of the brain

1...90% LGN thalamus
2. Superior colliculeus..thalamus?
Hubel
cats visual receptiveness..more recetive to lines and edges t hen to dots
MCClough effect
afterimage
Goodale 2 types of vision
and DF
VENTRAL vision for perception and understanding of the world visually

DORSAL vision for action...the ability to move towards objects

Df...couldnt understand objects but could move to them...drawing from looking...terrible..memory better
subtractive and addative colour mixing
subtractive..paint absorbes pigment

addative..lights
reversable figure
2 images in one interprations
perception set
readyness to recieve stimules in a particular way
inattentional blindness
distraction..failer to notice
feature anaysis
asembling shapes into more complext forms
buttom up processing
top down processing
B:see the parts the whole
T:see the whole then the parts
subjective contours
seeing contours where not exist:eg. three rounded lines make a ciricle
gesalt and 2 views of perception
inheritance vs learned
simplicty,proximity,connectedness, closure, simularity, continuity
figure and ground
2 cues for depth perception binocular
1)retinal dispericity ...comparing two eyes..the more dispartiy or change means things are closer

2)Convergence as the two eyes move closer togeather=closer muscles around eye indicate how turned inward..more inward is closer
monocular cues
relitive size,overlap,arial perpective(hazyness) graditent
perception and illision
experience,set,expectations
error in brain
old woman/girl...you see young due to experience aroundyoung ppl
set...being lead
expectations..effects of habit "time flys cant too fast'
poggendorf illision
two blocks with a line going thoguth
the line doesnt look straight
Gesalt laws of prognaz
remembering the simplest shapes////
when really you day a rounded and cut up triangle ..you just saw a triangle
context and oblique effect
look at conent and context and fill in rest...such as phone number pand n were the same

obligue effect....lines on angle will fill in as you move away
pi phenemna
movement through succession of images
optic illision
impossible figure
discrepency between appearence and reality

somethig that cant exhist in 3d eg.esher
sence of hearing
aplitude/wavelenght/purty
sound waves in air
louness/pitch/timbre
parts of the ear
outer..pinna sound funneled to eardrum
middle..bones vibrate..hammer,anvel stirrup
inner..vibreation in fluid of conchlea and bassilar emembrain...wavelenth of hairs..receptors
place theory
frequency theory
volly princeple
place"helmhotz...pitch has to do with where on the basilar membrane vibebrates

freequency:pitch has to with hwo frequent the entire basilar membrane vibrates

groups of ausitroy neve fibers fire neutral impulses in rappid succession creating volley impulses
taste and smell
gustatory...molecules dissolved in salavia to tastebud receptors...replaced every 10 days

smell..oldfacty..chemicals dissolve in mucous cillia receptors
axoms synapse at oldfactory bulb..NOT ruited throgh thalamus
touch
2 paths pain
closed gate theory
touch has 6 different recptors...sent to spinal cord/thalamus/soma sensory cortext in parital lobe
pain..open receptors path 1 A delta fibers..fast
slow..C fibers

closed gate...spinal cord can stop pain perception
kinesthetic system
body parts in space///monitors the postions of hte various parts of the body
Vestibular system
monitors gravity and the body eqililbrium and the inner ear
The blow fly
cut nerve from stomach to brain...eats too much and explodes study obsity ..issue ethics
Wilder Pinfeild
nueral psychology
stimulated parts of peoples brains..activated certain parts...found location of function
people keep all of their memories
The Goals of Science
1) Describe ..looking for objective ways to describe observations, measurements clear and precise

2)Explain >>>believe that when you can explain a phenemna you can better understand it..why is happend and develop a theory
3)predict...hypotsis to test

4)control...use information to solve every day problems, when you understand you can better control
theory.
system of interlated ideas used to explain a set of ideas
Scientfic Method

how is hypothsis testing like a riddle?
1)research and theory...go hand in hand effect each other
2)research report...peer review journal
3)Repulication..someone tests your work to see if they get the same findings
4)hypothsis testing


because: things that dont fit are significant, must be flexable, look at biases, be persistant, simple data anwers complex question
Steps in scientific Investigation
1)form a testable hypothesis
2)select research method and design study...how to put hypothsis to emperical test
3)collect data
4)analyse and draw conclusions...stats wheater hypothsis has been supported
5)report..journal
operational deffinition
actions taken to control and measure varibles in a study
research Bias
middle mania
complicated by subtle bias occurs when researchers expectations or prefernces aboput outcome of study influence the result
see what they want to see

middle mania can be used to bias results...ppl tend to stick the middle answer