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45 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
A candidate for governor was campaigning on a "get tough on crime" platform. He stated in many speeches that the state's homicide rate was above the national average and that, if elected, he would fix the problem. The incumbent governor running for re-election, stated that the state's homicide rate was well below the national average. Both claimed to be using the most recent FBI stats. It turns out that the first candidate had combined motor vehicle homicides, the vast majority of which were accidental, with other homicedes, which were intentional. the incumbent was onle using the latter data. What had the first candidate done?

A) He had used an ethological classification instead of a functional one
B) made a conflational error
C0used a systems approach to classification
B) conflational error
Diane's boyfriend broke up with her and started dating Rebec ca, who once had been one of Diane's friends. Diane was angry and began spreading vicious rumors about Rebecca. Diane also started calling Rebecca at all hours, but then always hung up without saying anything, just to irritate her. According to our definition, are Dian's actions aggressive?

A)Yes, There was harm done to Rebecca's reputation.
B)No. There was not physical atatack nor threat of one.
C)Yes. Diane's actions weredirected and repetitive, which are the key features of intent.
D) No. No testosterone was present.
B)No. There was no physical attack nor threat of one.
A geneticist c onducted a large-scale research project in which he was seeking to identify the possible genetic basis of a reading disorder, which he had noted tended to run in families. After much work, he thought he had found the gene and knew what the gene did in the physiology of the nervoius system. An educational psychologist read the report and criticized it because it did not condiser the family environments of children who had the disorder and how that may have contributed to it. In essence, the posychologist was accuing the genetiist of __________.

As you know, skunks spray a maelly, oil substance that most other creatures find hightly unpleasant, If you were interested in learning more about the proximate causes of spraying by skunks, which one of the following would be most valuable to you?

A)The probablility that a skunk will be attacked by a predator if the skunk sprays as opposed to when it does not spray.
B)The relationship between frequency of spraying and the number of offspring that skunks raise during their lifetimes.
C)The probability that the skunk will spray if the other animal is smaller than itself, versus if hte other animal is larger than itself.
D)The amount of time the elapses between spraying by the skunk and withdrawal from the area by the other animal.
A behavioral geneticist was interested in predatory behavior in a fish species and measured how long each individual took to attack a small shrimp. She bred a line that was quick to attack and another line that was slow to attack. After ten generations, the two lines had not diverged. Which of the following statements about this research is probably correct?
A)Selective breeding experiments take at least 20 generations to produce results, so she should persist.
B)There must be a procedual problem because all the st udies that have used this technique have obtained divergence.
C)The initial differences among the fish in how rapidly they attacked the shirmp had nothing to do with genetic differences.
D)There are probably on ly a few genes contributing to predatory aggression, so she should switch to some other form of aggression to see an effect.
Suppose that the same researcher modified her measure of aggression: She set up large tanks in which males and females paired up, built nexts, and defended the area around the next against incursions by other pairs. Do you think she will get divergence of high-scoring and low-scoring lines in this case?
A)No. They didn't diverge before so there must not be the necessary genetic variability on which selection can operate.
B)Yes. Selective breeding for aggression has been successful in almost every case, so her study on predatory aggression must have been a fluke.
C)Maybe, predatory and territorial aggression may be influenced by different genes, and if so, territorial aggression might respond to selction even though predatory aggression did not.
Two psychologists were independently studying the heritability of depression. Dr. Brown used diagnosis condordance rates among identical and fraternal twins as her data. Dr. Green interviewed identical andfraternal twins to see how many syptoms of depression were present in each one, then correlated the twins' scores to compute an estimate of heritability. From what we know of their methodologies, which of the follwoing predictions is most justified?

A)Brown will probably obtain a heritability score that is not significantly greater than zero.

B)Green will probably obtain a heritablity score that is not significantly greater than zero.

C)Both psychologists will probably obtain significant heritability scores, but Brown's will be higher than Green's.

D)Both psychologists will probably obtain significant heritability schore, but Green's will be higher than Browns.
Which of the following mehtods of conducting an adoption study would yield the most valuable infor mation, whether it is on aggression or anything else?

A)Identical twins adopted together into the same home at birth by their close relatives.

B)Idetical twins adopted separately at birth into different homes by parents to whom they are not genetically related.
C)Identical and fraternal twins adopted together at birth by trheir close relatives.
D)Identical and freaternal weins adopted sparately at birth into different omes by parents to whom they are not genetically related.
When male rats are castrated within the first week after birth there is no sign of a breain nucleus that can easily be found in the brains of males who were catrated when they were two weeks old or in non-castrated males. Therefore, the brain nucleus has _______ for the effects of testosterone, a hormone secretes by the testes.

A)preformation bias
B)closed developmental system
C)sensitive persiod
D)conditioned stimulus
A researcher conducts a cross-fostering experiment on two species of rodent, which we will call X and Y. When the offspring become adults, the researcher provides each individual with 10 grams of cotton, which they use in building nest. When nests are completed, they're weighed. The results were as follows:

X Pups raised by X mothers: 8 grams
X pups raised by Y mothers: 8.3 grams
Y pups raised by X mothers: 6.2 grams
Y pups raised by Y mothers: 6.1 grams

Which of the following statements is the best conclusion regarding these results?

A)The parental environment had an effect on nest weight, but the pup species didn't
B)The pup species had an effect on nest weight, but the rearing environment didn't.
C)There was gene x environment interaction in this experiment.
D)The information provided above isn't sufficient to tell which statement is correct
There are three genetic forms present in a certain species of salamander that lays its eggs in pools of water in the forest. One form always lays small eggs, one always lays large eggs, and the third lays small eggs in wet years but large eggs in dry years. This is an example of

A)genetic concordane
D)gene-environment interaction
E)environmental effects
A little girl was at the swimming pool where two other little girls were filling a toy bucket with water using little toy shovels. Later, the two girls left the toys and the area. According to Berkowitz, what will the first little girl do?

A)pick up a toy shovel and begin filling the bucket with water.
B)Play with the bucket, but she may fill it using some other toy.
C)Ignore the bucket and shovels but play with other toys in the area.
D)Look to her mom or dad for reassurance before playing with any toy.
A sociologist interviewed unmarried teenage mothers and the same nubmer of teenage girls who had never given birth. The latter were matched to the mothers in that they were the same age and lived in the smae neighborhood. All the girls were asked quistions about hteir living circumstances between the ages of 10 and 13. Compared to the control girls, the mothers reported being less likely to have had father living with them, to have moved more often, and to havve had more serious health problems. The sociologist concluded that stressful living conditions between the ages of 10 and 13 lead to increased rates of teenage pregnancy. What kind of study is this, and is the conclusiton warranted?

A)Prospective analysis. The conclusion is not warranted since the teenage mothers had probably not lived in the same neighb orhood as the controls during the 10-13 years range.
B)Retrospective analysis. The conclusion is probably correct since the researcher took the trouble of carefully matching the control group girls wiht the mothers.
C)Prospective analysis. The conclusion is correct becamse it is stated in a way that avoids making the claim that one thig causes the other.
D)REtrospective analysis. The conclusion may be correct, but because the study is correlational, we can't be sure that stress causes this increased rate of teenage pregnancy.
Ice hockey is often though of as an aggressive sport, but tennis is not. A sports psychologist in Minnesota obtained measure of testosterone from each of the players on the hockey and tennis teams at the university. He then conducted appropriate stats tests and found no sig. diff. in testosterone b/t the 2 grps of young men. What is the most appropriate conclusion to bereached from this study?

A)The measurements of testosterone must have been flawed, since the hockey players would be expected to have higher testoster one levels, due either to priming or feed back effects, or both.
B) The players were all young men, which would have tended to eualize their testosterone at a high level, thus obscuring any relationship that might exist.
C)Although testosterone may contribute to aggression, the hockey players are also the victims of aggression, which is known to reduce testosterone.
D)Tennis is actually more aggressive than it may seem, so the absence of a difference in testosterone is to be expected.
One hundred men participate in a study on testosterone and mood. They stop by a lab every other day for a month to give a saliva sample for measurement of testoserone. They also complete a survey to assess their mood state. When all the data are in, the researcher finds no significant correclation between the average amounts of testosterone in the men and their average mood. This surprised the researcher, who expected to find that testerone and mood would be psitively correclated among the men. How might this finding be explained?

A) Measurements of testosterone in saliva are unreliable; blood specimens would have given the expected result.
B)The researcher failed to distinguish between priming and feedback effects of hormaones.
C)The behavioral effects of hormones also depend on hormonereceptor abundance, but that was not measured in this case.
D)Mood fluctuates more rapidly than testosterone concentration.
Men come to the lab where they provide a saliva sample before sitting down to play a video game against another man that they are told is in another room. In fact, they're really playing the computer and it has been pre-determined who will win and who will lose. AFter the game, each man gives another saliva sample and is paid $10 for participating. Finally, each man is given a chance to bet their $10, thereby either walking wout with $10 if they refuse to bet, or with $20 if they take the bet and win, or with nothing at all if they take the bet and lose. This bet is simply a coin flip for which they call heads tails. The saliva samples are analyzed for testosterone concentration, and the researcher finds that the men have similar amounts of testosteron e before playing the game. From what we know of such matters, which is the correct prediciton for the expected results of the rest of the study?

A)The winners will have higher testosterone than the losers and will bemore likely to take the final bet.

B)The winners will have the same amount of testosterone as the losers but will be more likely to take the final bet.

C)The winners will have higher testosterone than the losers but will be less likely to take the bet.

D)The winners will have the same amount of testosterone as the losers and will be less likely to take the bet.
The study of hormones in men who played competitve tennis matches showed that

A) winners of matches maintained elevated testosterone levels.

B)hormonal changes occurred before the matches, but not after.
C)losers of matches maintained their pre-match testosterone levels.
D)hormonal changes occurred after the matches, but not before.
Electrical stimulation of a particular part of the cat brain increased the likelihood of the cat performing the defensive attack posture when he reached toward the cat. The effect of the stimulation lasted about 10 minutes. Which one of the following would you expect to occur in these cats?

A)Stimulation of the brain structure will also increase predatory aggression.
B)Lesioning this brain structure will decrease defensive aggression.
C)After the initial effect wears off, the cats will be less inclined to exhibit defensive aggression than they were prior to stimulation.
D)Stimulation of the brain structure will also increase the cats hunger level as measured by the amount of food sonsumed following stimulation.
The discipline most concerned with understanding the relationship b/t brain disorders and behavioral impairments is

D)behavioral neuroscience
The man who committed the Texas belltower shooting had a brain disorder. What was it?

A)temporal lobe seizure disorder
B)tumor in the amygdala
C)hypothalamic disconnection syndrome
D)cerebellar atrophy
E)prefrontal lobe hyperactivity
In the spring, a female woodpecker began visiting crevices and holes in trees, pecking at the bark and wood. After a few days, she found a spot, did some extra chipping, and then brought in nesting material. Using terms from the hydraulic model we would label the visiting and poking around as __________and the next-building as ____________.

A)action-specific energy: consummatory response
B)consummatory response: catharsis
C)appetitive behaviors: consummatory response
D)consummatory response: appetitive behavior
Which one of the following behavioral changes is not a componenet of the extinction syndrome, at least in the early phases of extinction?

A)slowing of response rate
B)responding in ways that were not previously employed
C)responding at a higher rate
D)responding with greater force
E)responding with aggressive actions
Which of the following is the best example of what we have called "erson variable" as they relate to the relationship between the media nad violence?

A)the amount of television or the amount of violent television a person watches per week
B)the sorts of thoughts and attitudes that a person develops as a result of their exposure to the media
C)the individual's interests and temperament exerts a strong influence over which kinds of media he or she chooses to watch
D)the values that the person's peers and fmaily members try to instill in the individual
A researcher measures the number of hours per day that families' television sets are on, and subsequently measure tblood pressure changes in children of these families as they view a high-action but non-violent television program in teh lab. This reasearcher is using the _______method of studying the effects of media, and the blood-pressure measure is the ______ variable.

A)correlational: predictor
Fred goes to a local pizza place for their all-you-can-eat-for-a-buck pigout on greasy pizza, and he eats so much that his stomach hurts. AFter several such trips, Gred notices that his appetite disappears as soon as he walks in tbe restaurant. In this silly example, the restaurant is the

A)unconditioned stimulus
B)unconditioned response
C)conditioned stimulus
D)conditioned response
Fred's idea of a good time is watching re-runs of The Simpsons while drinking a 2-liter bottle of root beer. After a few weeks of doing this he notices that he has an overwhelming urge to urinate whenever he hears The Simpsons opening jingle but before he's even opened the bottle of root root beer. The urge to urinate is the

A)unconditioned stimulus
B)unconditioned response
C)conditioned stimulus
D)conditioned response
The term "allele" means that

A)males have genes on the Y chromosome that females do not have
B)males are vulnerable to certain conditions, such as color blindness, because they only have one copy of the X chromosome genes whereas females have two
C)a gene has mutated, resulting in an altered version of the gene
D)differences between individuals are due to their genetic differences
Some phobias are much more common than others. According to evolutionary psychologist, the most common phobias_________

A)are holdovers from our distant psat and are no longer useful to us now
B)are due to experiences we had in early childhood, most of which can no longer be recalled
C)involve situations or things that were very dangerous during the lives of our ancestors
D)are instinctive, but are nonetheless modifiable through a learning process
Professor Plum is conducting a research project in which she records the brain activity of people while they engage in various mental tasks. In on experiment she says a word to the participant, who then says a word that rhymes with the first word. The process is repeated several time. If her results aretypical of those found by cognitive neuroscientists, what will she find?

A)Brain activity patterns will be virtually identical in men and women
B)Women will show brain activity increases in the left side of the brain but men will show the increase onl on the right side
C)Men will show brain activity increases in the left side of the brain, but women will show the increase only on the right side
D)Women will have increased activity in both sides of the brain, but men will have increased activity on only one side
E)men will have increased activity in both sides of the brain, but women will have increased activity on only one side
Assuming that the news media are more likely to report o n unusual crimes than on more typical ones, which of the followingheadlines is most likely to be printed on the front page of the newspaper?

A)woman shoots boyfriend in jealous rage
B)homeless man kills another for bottle of wine
C)convenience store worker shot during robbery
D)man stabbed in local bar fight
There are about equal numbers of male and female adult gorillas. Almost all the females have at least one offspring during their lifetime, but only aobut one-third of the males father an offspring. These males are the ones who acquire a group of females and prevent other males from coming near them. The mating system used by gorillas is known as ________

Data on affairs and "illegitimate" children in the U.S. indicate that men's feelings of sexual jealousy are

A)a holdover from the distant past when cuckoldry was much more common.
B)a product of socializaiton practices that encourages machismo in young men.
C)misplaced, given the effectiveness of contraceptive techniques
D)understandable even today
Amy and Bob are a little disappointed with their appearance, so they both started excercising, lost some weight, got nice haircuts, etc. Both got compliments from their friend. What will be the effect of these changes on their respective mate attraction values?

A)Amy's will increase, but Bob's will remain the same
B)Both will increase, but AMy's more than Bob's.
C)Both will increase, but Bob's more than Amy's
D)Both will increase equally
Pronghorn antelope malesareteritorial at some times, bt nomadic at others. The conditions that influence the selection of these strategies in this species is:

A)territorial during the warm months; nomadic in winter
B)territorial when population density is high; nomadic when low
C)territorial when fully-grown adult;nomadic when younger and smaller
D)territorial when vegetation is lush; nomadic when sparse
E)terrotrial when well-fed early in life; nomadic if poorly fed earlyin life
There is a fish species in which females behave in one of two ways. A female approaches a male that has built a nest, lays eggs in it,t hen stays and helps defend the eggs. The other way is for a female to lay eggs, but then abandon them, leaving the male to the rest himself. Suppose we descover that each female is consistent in her behavior, and her behavior depended on the amount of oxygen in the water when she was newly hatched. This case would be best regarded as a _________ strategy.

Relative to the entire adult male population, human rapists are

A)older than average
B)about average in age
C)younger than average
A man was arrested for rape in a case in which a woman was assaulted as she walked toward her spartment while carrying two bags of groceries. If you were the prosecuting attorney who subscribes to the biased-conditional hypothesis and needed to make a decision about whether to pursue an expensive investigation and trial, which of the following pieces of information about the accused would most make you think that he is probably guilty?

A)He is 20 years old.
B)He is a high school graduate, but does not go to college and works at the part-time job
C)He has a recent arrest for car theft
D)he has about a dozen issues of Playboy and similar magazines and a few pornographic videos at his apartment
E)he is a little below average in facial attractiveness and is not very well groomed
A spkesperson for an organization that was trying to raise awareness about abuse of elderly people was interviewed on lacal television and made the following statement; "Abuse of elderly persons is much more common than you might think and examples can be found in all segments of our societ." Research indicates that elder abuse is much more common in low SES families than in others. Therefore, the spokesperson has made the error known as:

A)regression toward the mean
B)the doctors and laqyers fallacy
D)the socialist fallacy
Which of the following cases is likely to be at greatest risk of perpetrating child abuse?

A) an 18 year old single mother of a baby with a heart defect
B)married couple in their late 20s with a baby with cleft palate
20 year old single mom of a healthy baby who lives with her 30 year old boyfriend
D)30 year old single mother of a healthy baby who also has a 2 year old and a 5 year old
More aggressive Yanomamo men________than less aggressive men.

A)are more likely to have several wives
B)are more likely to have sexual intercourse with other men's wives
tend to have more children
D)all of the above
A sociologist studied several inner-city and middle-class neighborhoods in a large metropolitan area. Rates of violence in the inner city were much higher than in the middle-class areas; they also glorified violence. The sociologist concluded that the different rates of violence were due to differences in how these neighboyhoods socialized their residents. Is this conclusion justified?

A)yes, neighborhood violence forces people to be violent, just to protect themselves
B)yes, the poverty they experience is frustrating, so people do what they can to get ahead, even if it means being violent.
C)no other difference between the neighborhoods might be responsible for the differences in violence
D)no the neighborhoods are too close together for them to experience different types of socialization
Which of the following is an ultimate (or evolutionary) way of measuring the cost/benefit ratio of a particular behavioral strategy, such as being territorial?

A) number of offspring produced
B)number of calories consumed
C)number of individuals that sustain injuries from fighting
D)the individual's weight divided by its length, which indicates how well-fed the individual is
A lizard species eats a variets of insect prey. Neighboring lizards make threatening gestures or fight whenever the meet near their borders. Which of the following is probably true of their food supply?

A)food supplies are very abundant
B)food supplies are moderately abundant
C)food supplies are very scarce
The summer camp study on group affiliation revealed that

A)boys, but not girls, were quick to become violent in defending their group against rivals
B)boys willingly followed adults who prompted them to aggress against other groups, but were not willing to do so when led by their peers
C)developing group affiliations was slow to develop andeasy to get rid of later on
D)identification with a group could occur quickly and oculd lead to violence, even among otherwise non-aggressive boys
Chimpanzee aggression

A)almost always involves males attacking females, usually as a way of getting sex
B)when committed by females, is directed mostly at young chimps, but occasionally at adult females
C)is sometimes lethal when committed by groups attacking individuals
D)is mostly directed at individuals from other groups, rarely at members of the same group