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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cognition
The processes whereby we acquire and use knowledge
Language
A flexible system of communication that uses sounds, rules, gestures, or symbols to convey information
Signs
Stereotypes communications about an animal's current state
Morphemes
The smallest meaningful units of speech, such as simple words, prefixes, and suffixes
Phonemes
The basic sound units of a language that indicate changes in language meaning.
Syntax
The rules for arranging words into grammatical phrases and sentences
Grammar
The language rules that determine how sounds and words can be combined and used to communicate meaning within a language
Semantics
The criteria for assigning meaning to the morphemes in a language
Surface structure
The particular words and phrases used to make up a sentence.
Deep structure
The underlying meaning of a sentence.
Image
A nonverbal mental representation of a sensory experience
Concept
A mental category for classifying objects, people, or experiences
Prototype
According to Rosch, a mental model containg the most typical features of a concept.
Algorithm
A step-by-step method of problem solving that gaurentees a correct solution
Heuristics
Rules of thumb that help in simplifying and solving problems, although they do not gaurentee a correct solution.
Trial and Error
A problem-solving strategy based on the successive elimination of incorrect solutions until the correct one is found
Hill climbing
A heuristic problem-solving strategy in which each step moves you progressively closer to the final goal
Subgoals
Intermediate, more manageable goals used in one heruistic strategy to make it easier to reach the final goal
Means-end analysis
A heuristic strategy that aims to reduce the discrepancy between the current situation and the desired goal at a number of intermediate points
mental set
the tendency to perceive and approach problems in certain ways
functional fixedness
the tendency to perceive only a limited number of uses for an object, thus interfering with the process of problem solving
visualizing
a problem-solving strategy in which principles or concepts are drawn, diagrammed, or charted so that they can be better understood
divergent thinking
thinking that meets the criteria of originality, inverntiveness, and flexibility
convergent thinking
thinking that is directed toward one correct solution to a problem
brainstorming
a problem-solving strategy in which an individual or a group produces numerous ideas and evaluates them only after all ideas have been collected
compensatory model
a rational decision-making model in which choices are systematically evaluated on various criteria
representativeness
a heuristic by which a new situation is judges on the basis of its resemblance to a stereotypical model
availability
a heuristic by which a judgment or decision is based on information that is most easily retrieved from memory
Confirmation bias
the tendency to look for evidence in support of a belief and to ignore evidence that would disprove a belief
framing
the perspective or phrasing of information that is used to make a decision
Hindsight bias
the tendency to view outcomes as inevitable and predictable after we know the outcome
counterfactual thinking
thinking about alternative realities and things that never happened
linguistic relativity hypothesis
Whorf's idea that patterns of thinking are determined by the specific language one speaks
figurative language
expressive or nonliteral language such as metaphor and irony
telegraphic speech
an early speech stage of 1 and 2 year olds that omits words that are not essential to the meaning of a phrase
intelligence
a general term referrin to the ability or abilities involved in learning and adaptive behavior
intelligence tests
tests designed to measure a person's general mental abilities
triarchic theory of intelligence
Sternberg's theory that intelligence involves mental skills(componential aspect), insight and creative adaptibility(experiential aspect), and environmental responsiveness(contextual aspect)
Componential intelligence
according to Sternberg, the ability to acquire new knowledge and solve problems effectively
Experiental intelligence
Sternberg's term for the ability to adapt creatively in new situations, to use insight
Contextual intelligence
according to Sternberg, the ability to select contexts in which you can excel, to shape the environment to fit your strenghts
Theory of multiple intelligences
Howard Gardner's theory that there is not one intelligence, but rather many intelligences, each of which is realtively independent of the others
emotional intelligence
according to Goleman, a form of intelligence that refers to how effectively people perceive and understand their own emotions and the emotions of others, and can manage their emotional behavior
binet-simon scale
the first test of intelligence, developed for testing children
Stanfor-Binet Intelligence Scale
Terman's adaptation of the Binet-Simon Scale
Intelligence quotient (IQ)
A numerical value given to intelligence that is determined from the scores on an intelligence test; the average IQ is arbitrarily set at 100
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition
An individual intelligence test developed especially for adults; it yields verbal, performance, and full scale IQ scores
Wechsler Intelligence Scale of Children-Third Edition
An individual intelligence test developed especially for school-aged children
group tests
intelligence tests administered by one examiner to many people at one time
performance tests
intelligence tests that minimize the use of language
Culture-fair tests
intelligence tests designed to reduce cultural bias by minimizing skills and values that vary from one culture to another
reliability
ability of a test to produce consistent and stable scores
split-half reliability
a mehtd of determining test reliability by dividing the test into two parts and checking the agreement of scores on both parts
corrrelation coefficients
statistical measures of the degress of association between two variables
validity
Ability of a test to measure what it has been designed to measure
Content validity
Refers to a test's having an adequate sample of questions measuring the skills or knowledge it is supposed to measure
Criterion-related validity
Validity of a test as measured by a comparison of the test score and independent measures of what the test is designed to measure
tacit knowledge
knowledge one needs for success in completing particular tasks; this knowledge may not be explicit
Mental Retardation
condition of significantly subaverage intelligence combined with deficiences in apative behavior
mild-low 50s-70
moderate- mid 30s to low 50s
severe- low 20s to mid 30s
profound- below 20 or 25
giftedness
refers to the superior IQ combined with demonstrated or potential ability in such areas as academic aptitude, creativity, and leadership
creativity
the ability to produce novel and socially valued ideas or objects