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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1. The variability between groups represents
c. random error and the possible treatment effect
2. You would use an analysis of variance (ANOVA) rather than a t-test when you are dealing with
b. more than two group means
3. Which of the following would NOT be a source of within-group variability
a. treatment effects
4. Using a t-test rather than an ANOVA with a five group experiment would
b. increase the chances of making a Type I error
5. If a treatment effect exists
a. variability between groups will likely exceed variability within groups
6. Factorial designs are unique in that you can
a. identify interactions
b. test the combined effects of more than one variable
c. identify moderator variables
d. all of the above
7. With a 2x2 factorial design you can
a. get at least as much information as you would from doing four simple experiments
b. estimate the overall main effects of two variables
c. determine whether the combined effect of two variables produces an effect that is different from the sum of their two individual effects
d. all of the above
8. A 2x2 factorial design can test for ______ simple main effects.
c. 4
9. A 2x2 factorial design can test for _____ interaction(s).
a. 1
10. If in a 2x2 factorial design you know that there are overall main effects for both factors, which of the following is true
d. you cannot tell anything about the possibility of an interaction
12. Which of the following statements is an example of an interaction?
d. both a and c are examples of interactions
13. True of False: Your main effects are important and meaningful when you have an interaction.
b. false
14. You conduct a study to identify the effects of caffeine consumption and exercise on stress. You find that overall, individuals who consume caffeine are more stressed than individuals who do not consume caffeine. Overall, exercise does not influence stress. However, individuals who consume caffeine and also exercise are less stressed than individuals who consume caffeine and do not exercise. This is an example of
b. one main effect and an interaction
15. If you were to graph the interaction between two variables you would NOT expect
c. the lines to be parallel
11. To estimate the overall main effect in a 2x2 factorial design, you
c. average the variable’s simple main effects
16. A major disadvantage of between-subjects designs, as compared to within-subjects designs, is that
b. individual differences between participants introduce random error
17. Generally, when using a matched-pairs design
b. the matching variable should be the dependent variable or related to the dependent variable
18. Which of the following might damage construct validity in a matched-pairs design?
a. exposure to the pretest leads to hypothesis guessing
19. The matched-pairs design should be analyzed with
b. a dependent t-test
20. Matching on pre-test scores in a matched pairs design can
a. increase power
b. improve external validity because samples do not need to be homogeneous
c. require less participants
d. all of the above
21. A major disadvantage of within-subjects designs is that
b. the effect of one treatment may alter the effectiveness of another
22. Using a within-subjects design will
a. eliminate the effects of random error due to individual differences
23. Imagine that you use a counterbalanced within-subjects design in which participants are randomly assigned to either one order of conditions or another (i.e., AB or BA). You set up your analysis like a factorial design. What would it mean to get a main effect for the order of conditions?
b. overall, the order in which participants received the treatments had an effect
24. Which of the following is the best way to reduce the treatment carryover effect?
a. lengthening time between trials
25. Having participants repeatedly complete your dependent measure prior to receiving any manipulations will likely decrease the ___________ effect, but will most likely increase the ____________ effect.
b. practice; sensitization
26. In a within-subjects design the order of the treatments should ideally be
c. randomly determined for each participant
27. The goal of establishing a stable baseline in a single-n design is to
a. show that non-treatment variables are constant
28. In the A-B design in order to determine that the treatment had an effect it is necessary that
c. there is a change in the dependent measure during the “B” phase that is greater than any fluctuations during the “A” phase
29. In and A-B design, the “B” represents
c. post-treatment measurement
30. The ABA design
a. is a single-n design
c. is also called a reversal design
d. both a and c
31. The reversal design has an advantage to the A-B design because it
a. is less likely to mistake maturation for a treatment effect
32. In a reversal design, behavior may not return to baseline levels after the treatment is withdrawn. This could be due to
a. treatment carryover effects
b. maturation

d. both a and b
33. Single-n designs are useful when
a. you are interested in studying the effects of a treatment on one particular individual
b. you are studying a very small population

d. both a and b
34. The value of quasi-experimental designs is that they
a. can be used to study problems that are difficult to study with randomized experiments
35. Which of the following factors distinguishes an experimental design from a quasi-experimental design?
c. random assignment
36. Which is a prerequisite for establishing internal validity?
a. establishing covariation
b. establishing temporal precedence
c. eliminating spurious variables
d. all of the above
37. If you have an experimental treatment that you believe will have a permanent effect on your participants, it would be best to use a
d. between-subjects design
38. If in the real world participants are likely to experience multiple treatments, it would be best to use a
c. within-subjects design with counterbalancing
39. If you cannot study many participants and order effects are a problem, it would be best to use a
b. matched-pairs design
40. If you are interested in identifying moderator variables, it would be best to use a
a. factorial design
41. If you want to look at the level of the individual rather than at group trends, it would be best to use a
c. single-n design
42. You are comparing the relationship satisfaction levels of husbands and their wives. You give married couples a measure of relationship satisfaction and then compare the wives’ mean levels of satisfaction to the husbands’ mean levels. Which inferential statistic is appropriate for this comparison?
b. dependent t-test
43. You are interested in comparing men’s and women’s levels of relationship satisfaction. You interview 30 women and 30 men, and none of your participants are in relationships with each other. Which test will you use to compare mean differences between men and women?
a. independent t-test
44. You have modified the matched-pairs design to be able to compare three conditions. You “match” the top three scores on the dependent variable and randomly assign participants to one of your three conditions. You do this for the entire sample. When you compare the means of your three groups, you will use a
d. within-subjects ANOVA