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93 Cards in this Set

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a close, emotional bond that develops between an infant and his/her caregiver.
Erikson's Development
Infancy: Birth to 12 to 18 months
Trust vs. Mistrust: The infant must form a first loving, trusting relationship with the caregiver, or develop a sense of mistrust.
Erikson's Development
Childhood: 18 months to 3 years
Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt: The child's energies are directed toward the development of physical skills. The child learns control but may develop shame and doubt if not handled well.
Erikson's Development
Late Childhood: 3 to 6 years
Initiative vs. Guilt: The child continues to become more assertive and to take more initiative, but may be too forceful, leading to guilt feelings.
Erikson's Development
School Age: 6 to 12 years
Industry vs. Inferiority: The child must deal with demands to learn new skills or risk a sense of inferiority, failure and incompetence.
Erikson's Development
Adolescence: 12 to 18 years
Identity vs. Role Confusion: The teenager must achieve a sense of identity in occupation, sex roles, politics, and religion.
Erikson's Development
Young Adulthood: 19 to 40 years
Intimacy vs. Isolation: The young adult must develop intimate relationships or suffer feelings of isolation.
Erikson's Development
Middle Adulthood: 40 to 65 years
Generativity vs. Stagnation: Each adult must find some way to satisfy and support the next generation.
Erikson's Development
Maturity: 65 to death
Ego Integrity vs. Despair: Reflection on and acceptance of one's life The culmination is a sense of oneself as one is and of feeling fulfilled.
Piaget's Cognitive Devel.
Sensorimotor stage: Birth to age 2
kids believe that if they can’t see it, it is not there.
Piaget's Cognitive Devel.
Object permanence stage: age 2
objects still exist even if they can’t be seen.
Piaget's Cognitive Devel.
Preoperational Stage: 2-7 years of age
Child increasingly proficient at using symbols. Extend belief in object permanence to include people Egocentric: Seeing/Thinking of world only from your own viewpoint & having difficulty appreciating someone else’s viewpoint
Piaget's Cognitive Devel. Concrete operations Stage: 7-11 years of age
performs logic and mental operation on concrete objects, they master conservation.
Piaget's Cognitive Devel.
Formal operations stage: 12 years of age thru adulthood
Ability to think about & solve abstract problems
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Mother drinks heavily, particularly during 1st twelve weeks. Physical, neurological, changes, Psychological & or behavioral problems.
(Mary Ainsworth)
distressed with mom gone, happy to see mom back, these mothers were affectionate & responsive, kids were cooperative & obedient.
(Mary Ainsworth)
when mom left they freaked, when mom returned they clinged, mothers were less warm and did not let kids go independently.
(Mary Ainsworth)
when mom was in the room they would ignore her, they didn’t care when she left or came back, mothers tended to reject their kids, unkind.
(Thomas and Chess) emotional development. Relatively stable and long lasting individual differences in mood and emotional behavior.
•Easy Babies (40%•Slow-To-Warm-Up Babies (15%) •Difficult Babies (10%)•No-Single-Category Babies (35%)
Cross-sectional study
Compares different age associates @ 1 point in time to determine causes of poor infant health, wide range.
Longitudinal Study
Follows 1 group of same-aged people over long period of time, takes long time.
Biographical study
very in depth case study, ex. 70-year-olds & study their lives backward through interviews with them and other sources.
Harlow’s experiments with monkeys
Attachment is based on getting both biological & emotional needs met. depends on comfort, monkeys were w/cloth mom=aged they couldn’t associate with other monkeys. We need to have an attachment to someone at a very young age to do well
Identity Foreclosed
(j.Marcia Statuses)
commitment without exploration
Identity Diffused
(j.Marcia Statuses)
no clear sense of identity
(j.Marcia Statuses)
actively considering choices
Identity Achieved
(j.Marcia Statuses)
commitment after exploration
Authoritative Parenting
Warm & Responsive, Exercises firm control & set limits, Children can question many times, Parents reason with them, Positive self-esteem.
Authoritarian Parenting
Set firm control with little or no explanation, because I said so, Less warm responsive, Children not allowed to question
Permissive Parenting
Warm & loving but not demanding, low self-esteem.
Level 1- Pre-Conventional
(Kholberg moral reasoning)
*Stage 1: Obedience and punishment orientation
*Stage 2: Self-interest orientation
Level 2- Conventional
(Kholberg moral reasoning)
*Stage 3: Interpersonal accord and conformity
*Stage 4: Authority and social-order maintaining orientation
Level 3- Post-Conventional
(Kholberg moral reasoning)
*Stage 5: Social contract orientation
*Stage 6: Universal ethical principles
Receptor Cells
special purpose neurons that convert various forms of energy into nerve impulses. Absolute threshold-minimum level of a sensory stimulus necessary for an observer to detect 50% at a time Difference threshold- difference necessary for an observer to tell 2 stimuli apart.
Young Helmholtz/trichromatic theory
that we see color cause we have 3 kinds of cones that each respond to only a part of the spectrum. Can have negative after images.
Hering’s opponent-process theory
we see colors as opposing pairs. (Red-green, blue-yellow, black-white).
Retinex Theory/Color Constancy
an object is going to tend to appear the same color no matter what lighting we are seeing it.
Visable spectrum
the narrow range of light that stimulates the rods and cones.
Monochrome color blindness
no cones or cones don’t work well, like going through a black and white movie.
Dichromatic color blindness
cannot distinguish red from green – it is a defect in the cones themselves, have 2 kinds of cones.
Binocular cues
convergence (when we go cross-eyed). Retinal disparity (distance between eyes)
Monocular cues
only use of 1 eye. Accommodation- uses the tension on the muscles that bend the lens of the eye. Overlap, height, texture gradient, linear and aerial perspective, relative size and motion, light and shadow.
interpreting the information provide by the senses. of the electrical signals/raw data that come to the brain
Vestibular system
movement, body position, direction of tilt, acceleration of head, position with respect to gravity
Gate control theory of pain
ignoring pain, feeling pain according to your mood.
Taste sense
500 taste buds, each has 20 recepter cells, tongue. Basic tastes: sweet, sour, salty, bitter. Umami(MSG) found in 1900
Sense of smell
olfaction. Intensify taste of food, warn od dangerous foods, trigger strong memories.
120 million, very sensitive, allow us to see in very dim light, but sensitivity renders them capable of only receiving black white and shades of grey.
allow us to see color, fewer cones than rods in each eye, found in the center of the retina in the fovea (point of central focus). Receive light stimuli; don’t see until the light is transduced into the brain
Ear structure
(Sound amplitude pitch) Outer waves pulled into canal, hit (middle ear) eardrum: vibrates & sends waves to (inner ear)hammer, anvil, & stirrup. they vibrate then to cochlea: fluid inside, receptor cells sound-waves are transduced into impulses,transfers along auditory nerve to thalamus then temporal lobe.
Some eye balls are elongated, where you have trouble seeing objects far away.
flat/short eyeball, lens to thin, light waves aren’t bent properly. Presbyopia had normal vision but as they age they become farsighted
light bends changes its shape and gets narrower then goes to pupil.
round opening near he outside of the eye, they continue to focus or narrow the light wave, it grows bigger & smaller via the iris if the light is bright the iris will make the pupil grow smaller and vice versa
curved transparent surface, the light wave narrows in the lens and this continues until you reach the retina where the light is transducted, turned into an electrical impulse and sent to the brain
colored ring of muscles around the pupil
the three layers at the back of the eye
Circadian rhythm
set for about 24 hours. Biological rhythm is natural cycle of activity that our body must go through. Biological clock for women.
Superchiasmatic nucleus
in circadian clock. It is a group of cells in the hypothalamus. Melatonin is secreted from 8 to 10 pm to make us feel sleepy. The more alert we are deals with our body temperature. Our clocks need to be reset everyday.
Repair and restoration theory
our brain releases important hormones. When our physical activity slows down.
Protective Theory
dangerous for our central nervous system to get to much stimulation.
Safety Hypothesis
dates back to cave people. They slept so they would not get killed by vicious animals. One reason was because we don’t see well in the dark.
Energy Conservation theory
we sleep at night to conserve energy and the food that produces our energy.
Sleep Stage 1
beta waves, about 10 minutes, we start to become relaxed, and drowsy. Hipnogoiate images are from bits and pieces that neurons produced that could turn into a dream. Also the time when we have hipnic jerks. They are said to be from muscle tightness.
Sleep Stage 2
beta waves, as long as 20 minutes, is true sleep. You get sleep spindles or in other words sudden burst of energy.
Sleep Stage 3
brain waves get higher and farther apart. Also known as Delta waves. You can be in this stage for about 40 minutes.
Sleep Stage 4
as long as 30 minutes. Lowest point with real delta waves. Breathing rate at the slowest. Release of growth hormones. Sleep walking or night terrors occur now.
REM sleep
it makes up about 20% of our sleep time, it lasts for about a few minutes to an hour. Discovered in the 1950s. Our voluntary muscles are non active. We are paralyzed during this time so we don’t act out our dreams. Nightmares occur here
Manifest Content Psychoanalytic (Sigmund Freud)-
what the person actually visually sees
Latent Content Psychoanalytic (Sigmund Freud)
underlying wishes or urges, meaning
Never being able to go to sleep, wake up during the night and not being able to fall back asleep. Some causes: Stress/Worry, Chemical abuse
People who sleep really long and still don’t feel refreshed
Restless Leg Syndrome
Discomfort in legs during sleep, tingling
People fall sleep at unknown times, they fall into r.e.m. sleep, which makes their muscles involuntary
Sleep Apnea
When people stop breathing in the middle of the night. Risk Factors are Intense, frequent snoring, Overweight, Alcohol use, Taking sedatives
State of consciousness in which a person is especially susceptible to suggestion.
Hypnosis Myths
Subjects are not asleep, they are in control of their behaviors, typically remember what is said to them during hypnosis, are able to talk during the process.
Naturally occurring phenomenon, Form of dissociation, break of a connection, where you think about something else, your concentration is so focused.
Hypnosis Process
Hypnotic Susceptibility (Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale). Deep breathing. Major relaxed state. Hypnotic induction- how they implement during hypnosis. Posthypnotic Suggestion- give some activity to after hypnosis
Anton Mesmer
Father of hypnosis, Treated people with magnets, Believed we have magnetic fields, Mesmerized.
Psychoactive Drugs
After consciousness and awareness, how we sense and perceive things, Change our moods, feelings, emotions and thoughts, Affect neurotransmitters and reuptake, Dopamine.
depressant, for Anxiety, drugs like Valium, zanax. Addictive.
depressant, Sleeping pills and sedatives, with drawl, Brohipnoul is the date rape drug
depressant, After a few drinks (0.01-0.03)- friendliness/inhibition loss, (0.06-0.10)- seriously impaired motor coordination, cognitive abilities, decision making and speech, (0.5 and higher)- death or coma
Common Stimulants
Caffeine and Nicotine, Approve reaction time and concentration, Pleasure of feeling good
hallucinogenic, comes from the cactus plant, Religious Native American ceremonies, 2,000 times less potent then LSD.
hallucinogenic, being on a trip would last 8-12 hours, increased sensory awareness, same receptors of serotonin.
stimulant, Coca plant, Emotional mood swings, Paranoia, High feeling of pleasure, Produces high from 10-30 minutes, Hallucinations
stimulant, Increase production, and High doses produce psychotic feelings, Methamphetamine is very addictive
3 primary effects: Pain reduction, Euphoria, Constipation. Examples: Heroin, Morphine.
Most widely used illegal drug in U.S, Made up of THC, Medical use for cancer patients and glaucoma.
Takes more of the drug to work, or to feel a high
The way someone feels when they are not using or trying to quit