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53 Cards in this Set

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Acquiring a new response (the conditioned response) to a previously neutral stimulus (the conditioned stimulus) that reliably signals the arrival of an unconditioned stimulus
Classical Conditioning
A stimulus-response pair in which the stimulus (the unconditioned stimulus) automatically elicits the response (the unconditioned response)
Reflex
The stimulus in a reflez that automatically elicits an unconditioned response.
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
The response in a reflex that is automatically elicited by the unconditioned stimulus)
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
The stimulus that comes to elicit a new response (the conditioned response) in classical conditioning
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
The response that is elicited by the conditioned stimulus in classical conditioning
Conditioned Response (CR)
A classical conditioning procedure in which the conditioned stimulus precedes the unconditioned stimulus and remains present until after the unconditioned stimulus is presented so that the two stimuli occur together.
Delayed Conditioning
A classical conditioning procedure in which the conditioned stimulus precedes the unconditioned stimulus but is removed before the unconditioned stimulus is presented so the two stimuli do not occur together.
Trace Conditioning
Acquiring a new response (the conditioned response) to the conditioned stimulus
Acquisition
The diminishing of the conditioned stimulus no longer follows the conditioned stimulus
Extinction
A partial recovery in strength of the conditioned response following a break during extinction training
Spontaneous Recovery
The elicitation of the conditioned response to stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus. The more similar the stimulus is to the conditioned stimjulus, the stronger the response.
Stimulus Generalization
The elicitation of the conditioned response only by the conditioned stimulus or only by a small set of highly similar stimuli that includes the conditioend stimulus.
Stimulus Discrimination
Learning to associate behaviors with their consequences. Behaviors that are reinforced (lead to satisfying consequences) will be strengthed, and behaviors that are punished (lead to unsatisfying consequences) will be weakened.
Operant Conditioning
A principle developed by Edward Thorndike that says that any behavior that results in satisfying consequences tends to be repeated and that any behavior that results in unsatisfying consequences tends not to be repeated.
Law of Effect
A stimulus that increases the probability of a prior response
Reinforcer
A stimulus that decreases the probability of a prior response.
Punisher
The process by which the probability of a response is increased by the presentation ofa reinforcer
Reinforcement
The process by which the probability of a response is decreased by the presentation of a punisher.
Punishment
A stimulus that is pleasant
Appetitive Stimulus
A stimulus that is unpleasant
Aversive Stimulus
Reinforcement in which an appetitive stimulus is presented
Positive Reinforcement
Reinforcement in which an aversive stimulus is removed
Negative Reinforcement
Punishment in which an appetitive stimulus is removed
Negative Punishment
A stimulus taht is innately reinforcing
Primary Reinforcer
A stimulus that gains its reinforcing property through learning
Secondary Reinforcer
The application of classical and operant conditioning principles to eliminate undesirable behavior and to teach more desirable behavior.
Behavior Modification
Training a human or animal to make an operant response by reinforcing successive approzimations of the desired response.
Shaping
A record of the total number of operant resposnes over time that visually depicts the rate of responding
Cumulative Record
The strengthing of a reinforced operant response
Acquisition
The diminishing of the operant response when it is no longer reinforced
Extinction
The temporary recovery of the operant response following a break during extinction training.
Spontaneous Recovery
In operant conditioning, the stimulus that has to be present for the operant response to be reinforced
Discriminative Stimulus
Learning to give the operant response only in the presnce of hte discriminative stimulus.
Stimulus discrimination
Giving the operant response in the presence of stimuli similar to the discriminative stimulus. The more similar the stimulus is to the discriminative stimulus, the higher the operant response rate.
Stimulus Generalization
In operant conditioning, reinforcing the desired operant response each time it is made.
Continuous Schedule of Reinforcement
In operant conditioning, reinforcing the desired operant response only part of the time.
Partial Schedule of Reinforcement
The finding that operant responses that are reinforced on partial schedules are more resistant to extinction than those reinforced on a continuous schedule.
Partial-Reinforcement Effect
A partial schedule of reinforcement in which a reinforcer is delivered each time a fized number of responses are made. The fized number can be any number greater than one
Fized-Ratio Schedule
A partial schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses it takes to obtain a reinforcer varies on each rial but averages to a set number across trials.
Variable-Ratio Schedule
A partial schedule of reinforcement in which a reinforcer is delivered after the first response is given once a set interval of time has elapsed.
Fixed-Interval Schedule
A partial schedule of reinforcement in which the time that must elapse on on each trial before a response will lead to the delivery of a reinforcer varie from trial to trial but averages to a set time across trials.
Variable-Interval Schedul
The set of internal and external factors taht energize our behavior and direct it toward goals
Motivation
A theory of motivation which proposes that our behavior is motivated toreduce drives (bodily tension states) created by unsatisfied bodily needs to return the body to a balnced internal state
Drive-Reduction Theory
A theory of motivation which proposes that our behavior is motivated by incentives, external stimuli that we have learned to associate with reinforcement
Incentive Theory
A law describing the relationship between the amount of arousal and the performance quality on a task - increasing arousal up to some optimal level increases performancequality on a task, but increasing arousal past this point is detrimental to performance
Yerkes-Dodson Law
A theory of motivation which proposes that our behavior is motivated to maintain an optimal level of physiological arousal
Arousal Theory
The desire to performa a behavior for external reinforcement
Extrinsic Motivation
The desire to perform a behavior for its own sake
Intrinsic motivation
A decrease in an intrinsically motivated behavior after teh behavior is extrinsically reinforced and then the reinforcement discontinued
Overjustification Effect
The tendency for an animal to drift back from a learned operant response to an innate, instinctual response to an object
Instinctual Drift
Learning that occurs but is not demonstrated until there is incentive to do so
Latent Learning
Learning by observing others and imitating their behavior
Observational Learning (Modeling)