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100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Differentiate "fear" and "anxiety"
f: innate alarm response to dangerous or life-threatening issue

a: being inordinately apprehensive, tense, uneasy about prospect of something terrible happening
Define "anxiety disorders"
chronic, intense feelings of anxiety--so strong they affect function on daily basis. Avoid situations where they feel anxious
Define panic disoder
experience panic attacks, periods of intense fear and physical discomfort in which they feel overwhelmed and terrified by sense of losing control
What are the characteristics of a panic attack?
At least 4 of these, develop abruptly and peak w/in 10 mins:
*palpitations *sweating
*shortness of breath, smothering
*choking *chest pain/discomfort
*nausea, abdominal distress
*dizziness, unsteadiness, lightheadedness
*derealization, depersonalization
*fear of losing control, going crazy
*fear of dying *chills/hotflash
*tingling or numbness
Who is most likely to develop a panic disorder?
-around age of 20
-women (2x more than men)
What is agoraphobia?
-intense anxiety about being trapped, stranded, or embarrassed in situation without help if panic attack would occur.
-may include fear of bing home alone, in crowd, on bridge, in moving vehicle
What are some theories about Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia?
-Lactate theory: anxiety caused by increased lactate
-excess of norepinepherine
-anxiety sensitivity: hyperventilate due to "false alarm" of being suffocated
-conditioned fear Rxs: assosiate certain sensations with panic
What are some methods of treating Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia?
-benzodiazepines: inhibit receptors on GABA neurons
-relaxation training: learn to control hyperventilation and other Rxs to stress
-Panic Control Therapy: cog. restructuring, develop awareness of cues to attach
Differentiate between aversions and specific phobias
av: responses of discomfort or dislike

SP: irrational and unabating fear or a particular object, activity, or situation that provokes an immediate anxiety response, causes sig. disrupt in function, causes avoidance behaviors
What are some theories of phobias?
biological: prewired to fear something to aid in survival
psych: defend ego from anxiety. bad experience in childhood.
Cognitive: overactive alarm system to danger, misinterpret stimuli
What are some treatments for specific phobias?
behavioral therapy: systematic desensitization (flooding, imaginal flooding, in vivo, graduated exposure)
cognitive restructuring: thought stopping, bolster self efficacy
Describe social phobia
irrational, intense fear that behavior in public will be mocked or criticized
May include: speaking in public, eating in restaurant, going out in public
-may be general or specific to situations
What are some theories of social phobias?
-deficiency of growth hormone
-children of welfare systems
-child victims of abuse
-school difficulties, running away from home
-genetic predisposition
What are some treatments for social phobias?
-behavioral and cog. techs used in specific phobias
-learn social skills to cope with stress better
Describe generalized anxiety disorder
-afflicted with physical and psych symptoms which interfere with social, occupational, and general life functioning. prone to restlessness, difficulty concentrating, feel tense
-more common in women than men, most prevalent in older adults
What are some theories of generalized anxiety disorder
-may have bio roots involving GABA, serotonergic, or noradrenergic systems
-cog basis, problem in worry process
-sociocultural--more stress = more chance of disorder
What are some treatments of generalized anxiety disorders
-bensodiazepines, SSRIs, antidepressants
-cog-behav. therapy-teach more rational alternatives to worrying. relaxation exersizes
Differentiate an obsession from compulsion
o: persistent and intrusive idea, thought, impulse, or image

c: repetitive behavior performed in response to uncontrollable urges or according to a ritualistic or stereotyped set of rules
Describe OCD
-individual is trapped in cycle of distressing, anxiety-provoking thought and behavior
-major dimensions: obsessions checking compulsions, need to have symmetry and put things in order, cleanliness and cleaning, hoarding
What are some theories about OCD?
-genetic, probs in Basal ganglia, affects prefrontal cortex. heightened activity in motor control centers of BG and frontal lobes.
-exacerbated by upp. resp. illness
-imbalance in seratonin levels
-behavioral conditioning
-cog.: memory deficits
What are some treatments for OCD?
-exposure to feared obsessions, prevent rituals
Describe acute stress disorder
-intense fear, helplessness, or horror developing after traumatic event. may have dissociative symptoms. reexperience event in images, thoughts, dreams, flashbacks. go to extremes to avoid reminders of event
Describe PTSD
-acute stress disorder lasting more than a month
2 clusters: intrusions and avoidance, hyperarousal and numbing
-2 phases of trauma rx: outcry phase and denial/intrusion phase
Biological Theories of PTSD
-nervous system becomes primed for danger response after trauma. altered neuro-transmitter functioning. reduction in size of hippocampus.
-genetic predisposition
Psychological Theories of PTSD
-conditioned fear in response to traumatic stimuli
-escape/avoidance is reinforcing, causing withdrawal rx
-worsened by self-blame and other negative concepts of event
-co-existence of other psych issue makes it worse
Sociocultural perspectives of PTSD
-education, income, social status can affect predisposition and how they deal with symptoms afterwards
Treatments for PTSD
-benzodiazepines, inticonvulsants, SSRIs
-psychotherapy, graded exposure techniques
describe somatoform disorders
-include many conditions in which psych conflicts become translated as physical probs
Describe conversion disorders
-translates unacceptable drives/troubling conflicts into bodily motor/sensory symps
-involuntary loss or alteration of bodily function
-Freud called it "hysterical neurosis"
-"la belle indifference" not distressed over symp.
-4 kinds: motor, sensory, seizures, mixed
Describe somatization disorder and related conditions
-expression of psych issues thru bodily problems (multiple and recurrent issues, not one phys complaint)
-not faking it
-paid disorder-pain is highest complaint
Describe body dysmorphic disorder
-preoccupied or delusional thinking that part of body is ugly or defective
-may seek cosmetic surgery or medical treatment
Describe hypochondriasis
-belief or fear of having a serious illness
-not involving extreme dysfunction, just over-alarmed about symptoms
-intense preoccupation about perceived abnormality in functioning
Describe Malingering, Factitious disorder, and Munchausen's syndrome
m: deliberate faking of symptoms for ulterior motives
fd: fake symps to feed inner need to play a sick role
M: life consumed with pursuit of medical care, feigns sickness
fd by proxy: cause symps in person under your care
What are some theories of somatoform disorders?
-primary gain: avoid responsibilities due to disability
-secondary gain: attn from Drs and others
-bio, learning, emo factors in developing disorder
What are some treatment for somatoform disorders?
-explore person's need to play the sick role, evaluate contribution of stress in person's life, provide with behavioral tech's to control symps
What are some characteristics of the DSM category of Psych factors affecting medical conditions?
-include: axis I disorders, psych symps, personality traits, maladaptive health behaviors, stress-related psych responses, etc.
-Dx given to persons with real medical conditions that is made worse by psych probs
What are some theories of DSM category of psych factors affecting medical conditions?
-stress (stressors, coping mech.s, affect on immune system)
-emotional expression (inhibition or suppression, Type C Person)
-personality style (feel impatience, irritability, pressure to hurry, Type A person)
What are some Treatments of DSM category of psych factors affecting medical conditions?
-behavioral medicine: behav. therapy, teach to gain control of health and healthy behaviors
-stress inoculation training: teach to anticipate tough situations and practice controlling stress
Describe dissociative identity disorder
-multiple personalities, alters inside a host
-experience a form of amnesia, gaps of memory of personal history
What are some theories about dissociative ID disorder?
-disturbances in childhood and development of self
-develops alters as escape
-enact roles they feel are demanded by the situation
What are some therapies for dissociative ID disorder?
-hypnotherapy: unify the alters, find the hidden source
-cog/behav. tech's, change client's dysfunctional attitudes (ie they are responsibly for their abuse as child)
Describe dissociative amnisia
-unable to remember important personal details or experiences, usually about traumatic experiences, not explained by medical probs
-localized: forget all events in time interval
-selective: fail to recall some events
-generalized: can't remember life
-continuous: forget all after a certain date
Describe dissociative fugue
-confused about persional ID suddenly and unexpectedly travels to another place
-rare, usually passes quickly
Describe depersonalization disorder
-distortions of mind-body perceptions, unrelated to drugs etc
-feel not real, like a robot, observing self from outside
What are some theories for other dissociative and depersonalization disorders?

What are some treatments?
-product of intense traumatic event of childhood or event in adult life

-tx: bring stability and integration to their life, establish safe environment
-hypnosis, meds, psychotherapy
Describe paraphilias
-recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving nonhuman objects, children/nonconsenting people, suffering or humiliation
-feelings last at least 6 mos
Describe pedophilia
-attracted to, abuse children
-hard to treat, many regress back to these behaviors
-types: situational molesters (feel distress after occasional incident), preference molesters (prefer children to adults, feel misunderstood), child rapist (violent child abuser)
Treatments for pedophilia
-administer progesterone to decrease sex urges
-castration or hypothalamotomy
-cog and behav. restructuring
Theories of pedophilia
-victim-to-abuser cycle
-family emotional and physical conflict
-birth order or handedness (influence)
-measured with phallometry
Describe exhibitionism
-intense sexual urges and arousing fantasies involving the exposure of genitals to a stranger. aroused by rx of shock or fear
Theories and treatments for exhibitionism
t: harbor feeling of sexual incompetence or inadequacy

Tx: counterconditioning, aversive conditioning, covert conditioning (imagine being embarrassed when exposed, not arroused)
Describe fetishism, and partialism
f-preoccupation with nonliving object, require it for sexual stim, prefer it to living partner

p-interested only in sex. grat. from specific body part
Theories and treatments for fetishism
t: conditioned response from being aroused around object

Tx: orgasmic reconditioning
Describe Frotteurism
-recurrent sexually arousing fantasies or rubbing against or fondling another person. Targets strangers
-probably caused by accidental arousal on subways or such, then learned to like them
-must unlearn associations
Describe Sadism and Masochsim
s: sexual grat. from hurting others
m: sexual grat from being harmed
What ares some theories and treatments of S&M?
t: pain/punishment only form of attn as child, wish to conquer others as they were controlled as children
tx: most never seek it. may use group therapy and behavioral conditioning to fix
Describe transvestic fetishism
-man has uncontrollable urge to wear women's clothes as primary means of sex. grat.
-sees self as man, is heterosexual
-may begin in childhood
-most don't seek tx unless other symps (ie depression) arise
Describe Voyeurism
-compulsion observe nudity or sexual activity without others knowing (sex. grat.)
-don't usually seek tx willingly
-tx: imagine being embarrassed when watching
What are some general theories of paraphilias?
-distorted "lovemaps," formed early in life, ie is programed towards unacceptable behavior
-possible biological predisposition (not full explanation)
What are some treatments for people with paraphilias?
-don't often seek tx
-combo of bio, psych, and social interventions
-medical interventions (meds, hormones, surguries)
-cog/behav techniques
Describe Gender ID disorder
-discrepancy between assigned sex and gender ID. Feelings of discomfort, inappropriateness of assigned gender. AKA transsexualism
-distress usually evident before age 4
What are some theories for gender ID disorders?
-hormones of developing fetus
-chomosomal abnormalities
-later birth order, more brothers (for men)
-largely unknown facotrs
What are some treatment for gender ID disoders?
-psychotherepy (relieve distress)
-sexual reassignment
What are some points saying that Multiple Personality Disorder IS a valid diagnosis?
-MPD meets standards of 3 basic forms of validity
-notion that MPD is iatrogenic is based on students in staged situations, not real clinic work
-clinical phenomenology of MPD has been delineated and replicated in numerous studies
-MPD and dissociations can be mesured
What are some points saying that Multiple Personality Disorder IS NOT a valid diagnosis?
-little more than modern hysteria
-condition is introduced by therapists
-practitioners believe it exists just because it has criteria in DSM
-therapists elicit expression of alters with leading questions
Points suggesting that sexual orientation conversion therapy IS ethical
-clients often have legit motivations for increasing heterosex. behaviors, like religious conflict, desire to stay married, don't like monogamy, or worry about HIV
-research suggests heterosexual potential can be increased with therapy
-same-sex behav.s associated with elevated psych disorder and suicide attempts
Points suggesting that sexual orientation conversion therapy IS NOT ethical
-sexuality is multifaceted
-gender development begins VERY early, is immutable
-gays experience more psych probs due to discrimination, not just from being gay
Points suggesting that pornography IS harmful
-predisposes men to want to rape
-develop arousal to depictions of rape, murder, child sexual abuse, etc
-males confirm that males have dominance in relationship
-increases men self-reported likelihood to rape
-desensitization, results in more violence and sexual exploitation
Points suggesting that pornography IS NOT harmful
-no clear cnnx btwn sex. explicit behavior and violence
-levels of discrim. against women INVERSELY related to availability of porn
-violence against women prominent in countries where the is NO porn
-sex offenders had less exposure to porn and exposure at later age
Points suggesting that antidepressants ARE safe and effective
-prozac and others developed on neuroscience, not chance, fewer side effects than older drugs
-low lethal potential, can be rxed by physician
-many side effects go away or are caused by the depression itself
Points suggesting that antidepressants ARE NOT safe and effective
-boosting seratonin can drop dopamine, dangerous side effects
-physicians pressured by ins. companies to not make expensive referrals, just Rx Prozac
-neuro disorders, debilitating withdrawl symptoms, suicidal behavior can result
Points suggesting that Elextroconvulsive therapy IS ethical
-safe and reliable
-not as widely used as it should be
-earlier and more robust antidepressant effects than meds
-many criticisms linked to older ECT when it had more probs
Points suggesting that ECT IS NOT ethical
-serious risks overlooked
-hospitals can reap considerable financial benefits from its use
-results not shown to last more than 4 weeks
-potential to destroy memory
-amnesia, denial, euphoria, apathy, mood swings, helplessness, and submissiveness can result
Points suggesting that antipsychotic medications ARE the treatment of choice for people with psychosis
-reduces likelihood that people with schiz will be rehospitalized
-safest group of drugs
-<20% experience tardive dyskinesia
-change brain in an effective way
-if you don't do them, you're dumb
Points suggesting that antipsychotic medications ARE NOT the treatment of choice for people with psychosis
-make you chronically ill
-cause increase in dopamine receptors (cause tardive dysken. and vulnerability to psychosis)
-don't fix brain abnormalities
Describe sexual dysfunction
-abnomality in individual's sexual responsiveness and reactions
-hypoactive sexual desire, sexual aversion disorder, erectile disorder, orgasmic disorder, premature ejaculation
Compare dysphoria and euphoria
d: sad
e: elation
Describe major depressive disorder
-somatic symptoms: lethargic, slowed down, or agitated
-depressed mood, little interest in daily activities
-weight fluctuation, sleeping too much or little
-feel worthless, inappropriately guilty
-thoughts of death or suicide
What are some types of depression?
-melancholic features (lost interest, can't wake up)
-seasonal pattern (develop symps at same time each year)
Describe dysthymic disorder
-not as deeply depressed as major DD, but distressing and long-lasting
Describe Bipolar disorder
-manic episodes (inflated self esteem, decreased need for sleep, more talkative, racing thoughts, distractability, increase in goal-directed behavior, excessive involvement in pleasurable activities maybe with painful consequences)
Differentiate Bipolar I and Bipolar II disorder
I: clinical course, experience one or more manic episode with possibility of having experiences one or more major depressive episodes
II: 1+ major depres. episodes, 1+ hypomanic episode
Describe cyclothymic disorder
-unusually dramatic mood shifts
-chronic, 2+ years
Describe Schisophrenia
-range of symps involving disturbances in content of thought, form of thought, perception, affect, sense of self, motivation, behavior, and interpersonal functioning.
-delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, catatonic behaviors
What are the "4 A's" of Schizophrenia?
Association: thought disorder
Affect: disordered experience and expression of emotion
Ambivalence: inability to make or follow thru on decisions
Autism: tendency to maintain idiosyncratic style of egocentric thought/behavior
What are the 3 phases of schizo.?
active phase: last >6mos, has delusions, hallucinations, catatonic/disturbed behavior, or flat affect/no motivation

prodronal phase: prior to active phase, shows sings of deterioration in social and interpersonal functioning

residual: follows active phase, still signs of disturbance
what are the types of schizo.?
-catatonic type: bizarre motor behavior
-disorganized type: disorganized speech, disturbed behavior, flat or inappropriate affect. Del/Hal lack any theme
-paranoid type: delusions and (often auditory) hallucinations without disorg. speech or behav.
-undifferentiated: complex symptoms
-residual: less prominent symptoms than before
What are the 3 dimensions of schizo.?
Describe brief psychotic disorder
-sudden onset of psych. symptoms, lasts <1mos.
-"nervous breakdown"
-sypms often reactive to stress or events
-treated with meds and psychotherapy
Describe schizophreniform disorder
-brief schizo. symptoms, longer than brief psycho disorder
-mostly treated with meds
Describe Schizoaffective disorder
-experience a major depressive episode, a manic episode, or a mixed episode at the same time meeting dx for schizophrenia.
Describe Delusional disorders
-single symp: organized system of nonbizarre false beliefs.
-types: erotomanic, grandiose, jealous, persecutory, somatic
What is shared psychotic disorder?
-one or more people develop delusional system as result of close relationship with psychotic person
-like cult followers
What are some bio perspectives of schizo?
-enlarged ventricles, cortical atrophy
-dopamine hypothesis
What are some genetic perspectives of schizo.?
-48% ID twin concordance
-study of high risk kids thru development
-bio marker in smooth pursuit eye movements
-bio marker of sensory gating
What are some psychological perspectives of schizo.?
-no evidence that it is solely psych
-symps may be exacerbated by labeling
-poor hospital staff may not help symps get better
What are some sociocultural perspectives of schizo?
-levels of expressed emotions in families can predict course of rehabilitation
What are some bio treatments for schizo.?
-antipsychoic meds, neuroleptics, ECT or lobotomy (old methods)
-many meds have adverser side effects
What are some psych treatments for schizo.?
-behavioral approaches (token system), social skills training
-cog/behavioral: improve ability to cope with daily problems
What are some sociocultural treatments for schizo.?
-mileau therapy-theraputic community
-social skills training