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177 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is culture
way of life developed to adapt to the physical and social circumstance they live
what increases likelyhood of discrimination
how is self defined?
from the relationship/membership of a subculture.
when do children begin seeing social class difference?
elementary school
what are some biases against children of lower class?
-more likely to have reading problems, lie to mother and start fights
when do children become aware of gender?
when do children learn their ethnic status?
before school age (after awareness of sex at 3)
how do younger children view ethnicity and how does it differ from older children?
younger: holidays, dress, school, language, more obvious ones
older: belief system, pride or detachment
what are the sexual hormones dominant in male and female?
males: androgens
females: estrogens
what does sexual hormones influence
influence on brain organization and behavior
where does the earliest recognition of gender come from?
how does gender role exhibit itself in toys?
girls encouraged to handle gently, care and nurture. boys are given noisy toys that encourage activity. encourage exploration and control over environment.
what is the male role expected?
contorlling and manipulating the environment
what are girl roles expected?
passive, loving, sensitive and supportive. self confidence and competitiveness not encouraged.
which sex has greater pressure to comform to gender roles?
children's belief in stereotype become more rigid/loose as they age?
what is the development of gender recognition?
2: establish gender schema, boy and girl toy distinction
3: definite ideas about jobs/gender diff
what is the youngest children start generalizing gender stereotypes?
1 1/2
in fae of contradictory evidence, children support/rethink streotypes
still support
who looked at gender role development in pre-school?
what is Katz' conclusion?
males are more aggressive exploratory and independent
girls more docile, socialble and dependentm
what is the gender differnece in delay of gratification?
male it is harder. less ability to show restraint and maintian attention
what experiment shows parents promoting independence?
age to paly scissors alone. boys earlier.
what is the shift in preschool and grade school in gender identity reinforcement
school less, peer more
who is macobby?
study middle school gender differences
what is macobby's conclusion
1. b g play differently
2. b more competitive, actiion oreinted, g more cooperative, relatiosnhal
3. girls find gusy aversive bc boys dont respond to them
conc: they play in diff groups
what are characteristics of girl games according to macobby?
girl: more imaginative, less structured by rules (REMEMBER, girls are still characterized as less imagintive, this is only in games).
who plays more in small groups according to Macobby
what are characteristics of boy games according to macobby?
more rules, competitition, diversification of tasks (offense, defense)
who has more rules in games?
who is thorne and lurie's studies result
1. diff in sexual exploration
2. exposure to team sports (boys)
3. boys display more excitement
4. increase avoidance of physical contact as age
who explores sexuality more
when can peer groups be sexually defined?
4th grade (before that, same sex holding hands is ok in 1/2 grade)
who are more likely to be nice or mean
who are more likely to play invasion games
who make kissing threats to boys
who play more contamination games
both eqaul
what is differnece when orenstein ask boys and girls to be opposite sex?
boys associated with opp girls with restraints. for ex: if i were...i have to do this. if i were... now i can do this.
what is diff in self confidence and dealing with difficult tasks
girls: lower, less
boys: more, more
what are some feelings expressed when parents give birth to a child with disability
denial, pain, guilt, sense of loss
what are some things parents of disability children should look out more
more energy needed, should get help
encouraged to treat them as normally as possible
early intervention service
what are some stressors on families of disabled children****!
1. frustration with long term uncertaintly
2. question over prevention guilt.
3. fatigue
4. appt
5. less freedom in activities
6. financial
what does Jones have to say about handicapped children components
1. mental retardation/ddevelopmentally delayed 2. sensory/motor challenges 3. low tolerance of frsutration 4. poor self concept (praise with reasonable limit as advice)5. short attention span 6. conrete thinking unable 7. social relationship limited
what does Jones say to do when sensory and motor challenge
provide assessment and itnervention
what to do when child has low tolerance of frustration
assess task/expectation, communication btwn home/school
what to do when poor self concept
awareness of limitation, praise but reasonable limit
what to do with short attention span
present concrete/simple tawsk with clear instruction/assess distractions
what to do about a disabled child's social life?
increase support and learn rules and expectations of games
what is cerebral palsy and what is its effects?
eeffect body movement and muscle coordination.
what caused cerebral palsy
damage to motor area of brain
how to treat cerebral palsy
tech advancement for children with no cognitive impairements
what is gross's conclusion on the psychosocial impact of handicapped child
higher level of stress, social support as a mediator, parental variable as a mediator (age occupation), low SES increas stress, marital relationship (buffer or stress)
what are some ways for parents to deal with childreen with disability? what are keys to adaptation
1. anticipate stress
2. sharing resource/burdens
3. acceptance
4. note critical period in child's life (21: emancipation)
what is wrong with the chromosome sof those with down syndrome
extra genetic material on 21st chromosome (trisomy 21)
what are characteristics of those with down syndrome
almond shaped eye, small features, high rate of heart defects
what is down syndrome kidds likely to have in addition to down syndrom?
ADHD, depression as well
what is historical changes for children for disability
more opportunity, more mainstream, more jobs for them
what do all kids ahve regardless of the time it shows
special abilities and strength. some jsut developed at diff pace
what do salisbur, gallucci, palomaro and peck says about strategies that promote social relationship with elementary student and disabled students
1. active facilitation of social interaction
2. the kid has abilities benefitial to class
3. build community in classroom (care and understanding)
4. modelling acceptance (model for the kid to be accepted)
what are some good qualities of disabled children in classroom
1. can be a resource
2. creative, compassion
3. accepting, supportive
whats Individualized Educational Planning Committee and waht does it do?
provide disabled kids with document that apply for services (service within a year limit, done annually). evaluate and recommend for services. find out least restrictive environment
what ar esiblings of disabled children concern
isolation, need for information, guilt, concern, overcompensation
what are some expectations u should have of the sibling
1. they should be treated equally
2. one shouldnt overcompensate
is overexpectation of a special need child bad?
no, easier to adapt. reasonable.
what should parents give opp to their kids with one being disabled?
1. support group 2. free information egarding the problem 3. free time ALONE 4. celebrate milestones 5. serve as models
what are 5 msg of school according to Wasburn
1. nationality
2. political authority
3. citizenship
4. info worth knowing
5. democratic value
what are 2 skills schools teach
1. cognitive (math, science
2. general (sitting down..etc.)
whats in common btwn china, russia, and US in their school systems?
partiotism, national history, obedience, diligence, personal cleanliness, physical fitness, language usage.
early academic success predicts.... and early academic failure predicts...
nothing. failure.
what are 4 values by brint, conterara, matthews
1. work performance
2. social
3. tarditioanl value
4. modern value
what are 5 levels of shcool/classroom serving as socialization function
1. teacher-initiated classr rules
2. academic curriculum
3. participation in classroom activities
4. co-curricular
5. public display, rituals
what are the common messages from teachers?
1. order/effort
2. social (respect)
3. traditional values (fair, courage, honesty)
4. modern values (less than 1%)
what are the written rules content?
2/3 rules with consequence/rewards
1/3 work effort
1/4 respect school property
how do messages to 2nd grader and 5th grader differ?
2nd: trad value in face of hardship, recognize and cooperate other cultures
5th: tolerance on diversity, cultural specific projects
how much time do kids spend on group projets in school
waht are some new trends at school
1. capture rather than command interest 2. ALL students must improve 3. multicultural in content/practice 4. value education
what does Rist study indicate (k-2)
all black school. the special table with special priv is higher class (better clothes)
how do teachers of lower/higher class differ?
teachers expectations, activity(middle class more active)
what is Ogbu's study?
look at why low-income children fail
what is Ogbu's finding
1. expectation from teacher
2. they didnt attempt at work (not failed at attempting the work) 3. no belief of opportunity 4. told that they must be twice as strong to succeed if they were to succeed in school 5. teacher attribute problems to psychological 6. parents see it as school's problem
boys acount for ___% of suspensions
who are more often identified for special education? how much?
boys 70%
from when to when do boys receive lower report grades?
elementary to high school
boys commit ___% of shcool violence
boys __X more likely to be diagonosed with hyperactivity
__ are __ times as likely to be seen as role models
boys, 2
__ are __ times as likely to receive attention
boys, 5
___ are __ times more likely to speak up in class
boys, 12
___ are exposed to __times more male oriented stories
girls, 3
why dont girls like computers?
1. anxiety, comeptitive games, programming with amle in mind 2. social context (boys monopolize machines) 3. boys take charge- also known as gender grouping
__% of college females in CS
__% of AP comp sci testees are girls
how do asian and american moms differ?
rate success due to ability or effort. cultural values.
when does americans exhibit shittier math and science skills
following 4th grade
americans is the lowest in TIMSS score at which subject
___% of kids dont have rules about TV
more/less than half report tv during meal time?
more than half
most kids ___ watch tv with their parents?
how much do children 2-11 watch tv every week
22-25 hours (3 or 4 hours everyday)
by the time a child graduates highschool, he does ___- more than anything but sleep
when does tv time start decreasing
when does music began to be listened to
which race uses tv and radio more
as IQ decreases, tv watching
what does tv influence
attitude, belief, behavior
does time of exposure really have to do with the influence?
no, long term watching may have no impact
what are two trends in TV?
more quality channels; more sex and violence
how does tv contribute to streotypes?
female gender roles (more likely to be parnets, less likely to be hero, victimized, sexual, prized). enforce racial stereotypes as well
how does children programming streotype gender?
male: problem solvrs
female: sweet and childlike
around __% tv shows during the day conatain violence scenes? __ of children shows has violent situations
50%, 2/3, most perpetrators unpished
__% of MTV shows violence/weapon
new study by Huesmann indicate what about violence
15 year follow up show that childhood exposure does indicate inclination
what make children predicted violence higher?
1. idnetification with ti
2. perceived relaism
what effects does violence on TV have on children?
1. learn aggressive skills
2. weaken inhibition against behaving violently/tolerance
how does children benefit from media?
1. vocab 2. comprehension 3. flexible thinking skills
what effects does educational program have on kids in preschool - i mean, how does it predict academic performance
higher, read more books
girls that watched more violent programs have __ grades in school
why is tv related to obesity in children
1. tv in bedroom 2. advertising (the advertisiers know it too)
how do children feel about commercial messages at 2 and 6th grade
2nd: suspicious
6th: global distrust
highschoolers spend __ min a day reading mag
13-18 (note it is the same age)
why do teens read mag
1. reflect their lives 2. cool trends
what is mag's effect on women
idea of feminity, relationship with men
what do black girls look to learn about idea of feminity? not from mag
peers, cultural standards
___ of marriages end in divorce
initial research of divorce and impact on children uses ___
crisis model
what happens following a divorce onthe child?
parent work, decreased SES, move loss of peers, increased responsibility
what does chidlren adapt into following divorce
single household, parental dating, remarriage
what are some factors that impact effect of divorce on children
age, gender, temperament, parental hostility, parental pathology, social support
younger children respond to divorce as ___
which gender take divorce worse (children)
what is the largest predictor of post-divorce negative outcome**
parental hostility
how to normalize/intervene children of divorce?
1. clarification of new adapations
2. increase communication
3. encourage more adaptive coping pattern, strategy
whats best for toddler when sick
parental presence
what is the effect on preschool children with chronic illness
punitive thinking, magiccal thinking, increase possibility of developmental regression (disrupts autonomy), poor peer interaction, no mom there to discipline
what is effect on middle childhood of hospitalization/illness?
disrupt sense of mastery, control (most important), need to "catch up" on development
what is effect of hospitalization/illness on adolecent
identity development impeded, deal with problem internally, rely less on family, concern of being "different", sense of independence, status in peer group, appearance
what to do to tell a child he is dying
honest communication, giving "choice" in everything (regain control for him), give them full knowledge, include in decision making, survival goals
what are 3 processes of model for workign with children facing death of loved one?
1. bereavement process (isolation due to death, emotional, cognitive, behavioral response) 2. grief process (observable expression about death)
3. mourning process (internal evolution of the image of the dead one)
how does preschoolers respond to death?
separation difficulties, limited understanding of death/time
how do early elementary schoolers respond to death?
understand death as a concept, not the permanence, seen as reversable
how does late elementary schoolers respond to death?
more understanding, difficulty concetrating, dwithdraw, isolation, more BEHAVIORAL change
what are some needs of the child with death involved in relatives?
need to discuss it, need strategies to help with teasing, need to find permission to keep on living (not labeled), support and memories. they learn bad things happen and increase uncertainty about life.
whats important in child life in hospital
provide normalized experience
what are symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder?
recurrent thought fo trauma, phobic avoidance of places, oversensitivity to sound, nervousness, increased irritablity, blunted emotion (numb or helpless), sleep disturbance, misperception cognitively, distrust, less future oriented
what are two forms of abuse?
physical and emotional
what are two forms of neglect
medical neglect or physical neglect
what is the porportion of neglect vs. physically buse or sexually abuse to emotional abuse (4 kinds)
which gender and which sex has the highest fatality rate from abuse?
male infant
which age group died the most from neglect?
younger than 4
who neglects more in neglect cases? mom or dad
what are some risk factors for abusefor children?
sex, age, disabilities, prematurity, LBW, childhood trauma, behavior problems, chornic illness, difficult/slow to warmup temparament
what are some protective factors for children from abuse?
good health, smart, hobbies, good peer relation, easy temperament, active coping style, good social skills
what are some risk factors for parents/family?
substance abuse, use; history of child abuse; personality: external locus of control, poor impulse control, lwo tolerance, mental illness, social isolation, see child as a source of love/affection (unrealistic developmental expectation)
what are some protective factors of family from abuse?
secure attachment, warm relationsihp, house rules, family support
children deal with increased or decreased anxiety nowadays? why?
increased, feeling that parents cant protect them
what are some factors determining response to war in children?
proximity, identification (esp with younger injured), realistic and imagined fear increased; age gender and cognitive level, past history, individual indifference; parental response can increase/decrease negative reactions; realistic worries about safety/security; bereavment, economic shifts, single parenting, surrogate parenting, moves, loss of peer group; increased divorce rate, contact
What are some common reaction of children in war?
nightmares, clinging, anxiety,c rying, physical problem, food hoarding behavior, sleep with light on
about ___ of the children exhibit PTSD after war?
over half
what are something that enhance adaptation to war?
coping by adult/others, support system, activity/mastery, denial, BASIC model
What is the BASIC model?
belief, affect, social skills, imagination, cognition
does active coping/relief effort decrease anxiety?
no. it might increase it.
what are some risks to be raised in popular?
health, cognitive and social-emotional deficit (depression, mental health difficulty, trauma symptom)
What are some recommendations that Kotlowitz suggested for poverty districts?
-continued literacy program
-begin listening
-co-living, common rooms
-build on what was working
-violence as public health issue
-rehab of juvenile justice system
what was the doll experiment?
kids didnt pick the white doll
at what age can children point out racial difference?
at what age can children identify racially? as a group?
what are some characterisitics of adolescence that Elkind pionts out?
-imaginary audience
-personal fable (unique/heroic)
-invincibility fable
higher rate of conflict ____ (is or is not) indication of poor quality of parent child relationship
is not
there is more conflict when (more/less) time spent together wit hparents
which STD do US teenagers have the highest in?
gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia
what does early sex predict?
delinqunt behavior, poor prospect for higher education, smoking, alcohol.
what is the implication emotionally of being gay in HS?
gay, isolation, denial, fake, low self esteem
what is the result of girl scount's report on safety in girls?
emotional safety #1 concern, then physical.
hwo much girls say they can keep themselves safe
who feels more insecure? (in terms of safety)
teen or younger girls?
how do boys form cliques?
definition of masculinity
boys are ___ as much bullying