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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Episodic Memory
A single event such as; I missed the train this morning. Particular Events in one's own life
Generic Memory
Memory for items of knowledge such as; The capital of France is Paris. Independent of the occasion on which they are learned.
The process by which information is sotred in memory.
What happens to information once it is in memory. Once we put things into our memory they don't just sit there. We try to put information in so that it won't get mixed up with anything else
Getting information out of memory. In order to get information out of our memories, it deals greatly with how we have put it in.
A task in which some item must be produced from memory.
A task in which a participant must judge whether he has encountered a stimulus previously.
Storage Capacity of Short Term Memory
Holds only a small amount of information from 20s to 60s. Holds 7 +/- 2 units of information.
Short Term memory is short lived
A reflection of the small size of the memory-sets a boundary on performance in a variety of settings
Taking seperate pieces of information and grouping them together in packages. This enables one to memorize more information.
Maintenance Rehersal
Repetition to keep material in working memory for a while. In contrast to elaborate rehersal, this confers little long term benefit.
Why do psychologists prefer "working memory" in palce of "short term memory"?
We should avoid thinking of working memory as some sort of passive receptacle in which materials rest on their way to long-term storage. We should conceive of working memory in more active terms, terms that reflect the work that is being done there.
Why do psychologists prefer "working memory" in palce of "short term memory"? (Part Two)
They regard working memory not so much as a temporary storage platform but rather as a mental workbench on which various items of experience are sorted, manipulated, and organised. According to this view, how well information will be retained in memory does not depend on a simple transfer from one storage container to another. Instead it depends on how this material is processed. The more elaborate the processing the greater the likelihood of recall and recognition.
Deliberate strategies for helping memory, many of which we use imagery.
Method of Loci
A mnemonic technique that requires the learner to visualize each of the items that she wants to remember in a different spatial location. Recall requires that each location be mentally inspected for the item placed there.
Retrieval cue
A stimulus that opens the path to the memory. Retrieval is most likely to succeed when the cues and context during retrieval match those in place during the initial encoding.
Encoding specificity
The hypothesis that retrieval is most effective (likely) if the context at the time of recall approximates that during the original encoding.
Elaborative Rehersal
Rehersal in which material is actively reorganised and elaborated while in working memory. In contrast to maintenance rehersal, this confers considerable benefit.
Elaborative Rehersal (Part Two)
Elaborative rehersal enhances learning because each step of elaboration builds another path by which the material can be accessed. The more such paths that are created, the easier retrieval will be.
Graph Question
You are most likely to lose information after only one hour.
A theory of forgetting in which memory traces erode largely through the passage of time.
Interference Theory of Forgetting
The hypothesis that items are forgotten because they are somehow interfered with by other items learned before or after.
In theories of memory and thinking, a term that refers to a general cognitive structure in which information is organised.
A subcase of schema that describes a characteristic pattern of behaviour in a particular setting such as a restaurant.
Eyewitness Testimony
In a testimony when asked to recall events, the eyewitness may have seen schema-based inferenes, which are entirely subconcious. (Did you see the/a broken light...example)
4 Stages: Relaxed, Drowsy, Sleep, and Deep sleep.
REM (Rapid Eye Movement)
Lasts for about 15 minutes. The only muscles you can move are your eyes. This is the stage when you dream. Brain also reorganises the information that was put in that day.
Anterograde Amnesia
From an accident and on, you can't use your memory. You can't remember things after an event.
Retrograde Amnesia
You are unable to recall events that happened before an accident.
Five Properties of Human Language: Creative (Novel)
We have a limited (though large) number of words in our vocabulary, but we can use these to utter a virtually unlimited number of new sentences. We can do this because our language system allows us to combine the old words in new ways.
Five Properties of Human Language: Structured (Patterned)
We can and do invent new sentences all the time, however, there are restrictions governing this creativity. We share certain rules and principles when putting words together.
Five Properties of Human Language: Meaningful
Each word in a language expresses a meaningful idea about something, action, abstraction, etc. The purpose of language is to express all these meaning to others. Meaning is derived not only from individual words but how they are put together.
Five Properties of Human Language: Referential
Words in language stand for/name things, easier to carry words around with us than objects to remember them.
Five Properties of Human Language: Interpersonal
Many aspects of language production and language comprehension take place within a single human mind.
The smallest significant unit of sound in a language. In English it corresponds roughly to a letter of the alphabet.
The smallest significant unit of meaning in a language.
The organisation of meaning in language.
Reference Theory of Meaning
Claims that cherry is simply the label for a particular kind of fruit and locomotive the label for a particular kind of vehicle.
Definitional Theory of Meaning
The theory that our mental representation of word meaning is made up of a small number of simpler concepts.
The Prototype Theory of Meaning
The definitional theory faces a problem; for some members of a meaning category appear to exemplify that category better than others do.
Theory of Prototypes
The questions is whether the semantic categories described by words are really all-or-none as the definitional theory would have it.
The system by which words are arranged into meaningful phrases and sentences
A whimsical term for the singsong speech pattern that mothers and other adults generally emply when talking to an infant.
Sound Cues
1. One cue involves change of pitch
2. Presence of brief periods of silence that often occur between sentences
Overregulization Errors
Treating the irregular verbs as though they were regular. (Ex:Feet, Foots, Feets, Footies)
Critical Period (Example)
A young girl hadn't had exposure to language until she was 6. In 2 1/2 years she was speaking like a normal 8 yr old.
Critical Period (Definition)
Period during which our minds are open to learning a new language. From when you are born to age 12.
Object Permanence
The conviction that an object remains perceptually constant over time and exists even when it is out of sight. According to Piget this does not develop until enfants are 8 mos old or more.
In Piget's Theory the twin processes by means of which cognitive development proceeds.
Assimilation (Part Two)
The process whereby the environment is interpreted in terms of the schemas the child has at the time.
The way the child changes his schemas as he continues to interact with the environment.
In Piget's theory, a characteristic of preoperational children, an inability to see another's point of view. (Water in beaker example)