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150 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Rorsharch is an example of what kind of test?
c) projective
Which of the following psychological disorders are more common among females than males?
d) adolescent depression
What kind of case formulation aims to provide a detailed representation of the individual child or family as a unique entity?
b) idiographic
Which of the following is not an underlying assumption regarding abnormal child behavior?
d) abnormal development is most easily traced to biological bases
Which lobes of the brain contain the functions underlying much of our thinking and reasoning abilities?
b) frontal
What category of theorists emphasize attributional biases, modeling, and cognitions in their explanation of abnormal behavior?
c) social learning
What term refers to predictions concerning future behavior under specified conditions?
d) prognosis
Emily’s mother was asked to complete a behavior checklist on two separate occasions several weeks apart. The results from both occasions were very similar. What concept is illustrated here?
a) reliability
You are a clinician working with an adolescent girl who was referred for treatment due to concerns with depression. However, during the course of assessment you also learn that she has severe anxiety problems and may also have an eating disorder. What term refers to the simultaneous occurrence of two or more disorders in the same person?
d) comorbidity
After reviewing a lab based research study on the effects of television violence on children’s aggressive behavior, you conclude that the results can be easily generalized to children in other settings. What would you say about the study?
a) it has external validity
What area of knowledge is most important as a foundation for evaluating a child’s competencies and making judgements about his/her progress or impairments?
d) normative developmental tasks
Amanda and Angela were both recently diagnosed with Conduct Disorder; however, the course leading up to this diagnosis involved very different developmental pathways for each of them. What concept does this example illustrate?
a) equifinality
What is most likely reason for the over-representation of boys seen for psychological disorders?
c) boys are more likely than girls to be referred for treatment.
Which of the following beliefs about children was advanced by John Locke?
c) children are emotionally sensitive beings.
What kind of theoretical model portrays the child’s environment as a series of nested and interconnected structures?
b) ecological
How do most practicing clinicians describe their therapeutic approach?
d) eclectic
Which of the following concepts is most emphasized in the developmental psychopathology approach to studying childhood disorders?
b) developmental tasks and processes
From a developmental psychopathology perspective, which of the following considerations is most central to understanding maladaptive behavior?
d) what is normative for a given period of development.
What does the term etiology mean?
a) causes of disorders
What therapeutic approach views child psychopathology as the result of faulty thought patterns and faulty learning and environmental experiences?
c) cognitive-behavioral
What procedure measure electrical activity in the brain?
a) EEG
Which statement is most true about problematic behaviors shown by children?
b) they are shown to some degree by most children.
What term refers to all cases of a disorder, whether new or previously existing, that are observed during a specified time period?
d) prevalence rates
What does the “B” represent in an A-B-A-B research design?
a) intervention
What type of research addresses questions about the prevalence, nature, and distribution of childhood disorders at different ages and in different settings?
a) epidemiological research
What does the “C” represent in the “ABCs of behavioral assessments” stand for?
a) consequences
What impact did the biological disease model of mental problems have during the early part of the 20th century?
d) eugenics and segregation
What impact did the work of Rene Spitz have on children’s mental health treatment?
d) it raised questions about the harmful impact of institutionalization on children’s development.
A study was conducted to examine the relation between children’s reading performance and the average number of hours per week parents reportedly read to their children. Students from the 1st, 3rd, and 5th grades were chosen to participate in the study, and were all tested once at the end of the school year. This example best illustrates what type of research design?
c) cross sectional
Which of the following answers best summarizes the conclusion of behavioral geneticists with regard to research on genes and behavior?
c) genetic contributions to psychological disorders come from many genes, which each make a small contribution.
What term describes an assessment measure that allows for the scores of one child to be compared to the scores of other similar children?
c) standardized
Dr. Love conducted a study exploring the effects of marriage problems on children’s behavior. She found that reports of parental discord were positibely correlated with children’s disruptive behavior at home and at school; however, the strength of this correlation depended on whether the child was a boy or a girl. Moderate correlations were observed between these two variables for boys. What term best describes the function of the gender variable in this example?
d) moderating variable
Which of the following statements about neural development is false?
c) the connection in the brain are relatively pre-determined and the environment cannot change their course.
Which of the following is true with respect to resilience?
d) resilience may vary over time and across situations.
What term describes an assessment tool that actually measures the construct it is intended to measure?
b) valid
What kind of validity refers to the degree of correlation between measures that are expected to be related to one another?
a) convergent
Dr. Feelbetter conducted a controlled study of his newly developed treatment for trichotillomania. To ensure that the treatment worked for this specific disorder, he excercized careful control over the selection of cases, therapists, and delivery of treatment in the study. Which of the following statements is most accurate of this example?
a) this is an example of treatment efficacy research
To an attachment theorist, how would crying (in an infant) most likely be explained?
d) it is a means of enhancing the infant-caregiver relationship.
Which of the following statements about genetics is false?
a) genes determine behavior
In a follow-up of Dr. Loves study, Dr. Harmony also found links between parental discord and children’s disruptive behavior. Howerver, her results suggested that the reason parental discord may lead to disruptive behavior in children is that it had a negative impact on parental monitoring of children’s behavior, and that low parental monitoring was related to children’s disruptive behavior. In other words, it appeared that decreased parental monitoring was the mechanism through which parental discord resulted in chldren’s disruptive behavior. What was Dr. Harmony’s conclusion?
c) Eureka! Parental monitoring is a mediator variable
If a child’s best friend had recently died, on which axis of the DSM-IV would this observation be noted?
d) IV
To what were children’s disturbing behaviors attributed during the 17th and 18th centuries?
a) possession by the devil or other evil forces.
Jessica, age 15, gossips, verbally insults peers, and often ostracizes others. Jessica is displaying:
c) relational aggression
Which of the following terms best describes the developmental psychopathology perspective?
a) macroparadigm
What term is most often used to describe positive adaptation in the context of significant adversity?
c) resilience
What is the most universally used assessment procedure with parents and children?
c) the clinical interview
What is one of the major limitations of structured observational research methods?
b) behavior may be altered as a function of participants awareness of being observed
What can be said about the boundaries between abnormal versus normal functioning in children?
b) they are relatively arbitrary
Which of the following is equally common among males and females?
a) childhood depression
For assessment purposes, what advantage do behavior checklists typically have over interviews?
c) results can be compared to a normative sample.
which term describes an immediate alarm reaction to current danger or life-threatening emergencies?
c. fear
the brain damage theory of ADHD, which arse in the 1940s and 1950s, used labels such as minimal brain damage and minimal brain dysfunction to describe children with ADHD-like symptoms. Why was this theory eventually rejected?
it could explain only a very small number of cases of ADHD
at what developmental stage do most social phobias first occur?
d. adolescence
deficits in executive functions in children with conduct problems are likely due to:
the presence of co-morbid ADHD
to date, the strongest evidence for the effectiveness of medication to treat anxiety disorders in children and adolescents is for
c. OCD
stimulant medications for ADHD work by:
b. stimulating neurotransmitter activity in the frontostriatal region of the brain
from the case example in the Kearney "casebook", the psychologist assessing the 15-year-old derek pratt arrived at a preliminary diagnosis of __________ due in part of derek's history of ________
a. conduct disorder; shoplifting and vandalism
when would an absence of separation anxiety most likely suggest an insecure attachment?
b. at 14 months of age
9. the core attentional deficit in ADHD is believed by many to be:
c. sustained attention/vigilance
10. on the continuous performance test (CPT), Johnny made several errors of commission. what might this be a sign of?
b. impulsivity
11. according to gray's neurobiological model, a child with antisocial behavior is likely to have:
d. an overactive BAS and an underactive BIS
12. children are at highest risk for later psychiatric problems and impairment in functioning when they display what type of antisocial behavior?
b. overt-destructive
13. which of the following anxiety disorders is most common in childhood?
d. separation anxiety disorder
14. children who display severe aggressive and antisocial acts that include inflicting pain on others or interfering with other's rights are most likely to meet criteria for what disorder
b. conduct disorder
15. what is the estimated prevalence rate for conduct disorder?
c.7-12%
16. which of the following statements is most accurate with respect to ADHD and children's intelligence?
d. most children with ADHD are within the normal range in intelligence
17. which of the following statements is not true about genetic influences in ADHD?
c. ADHD concordance rates for fraternal twins are about twice as high as for identical twins
18. for children with conduct disorder, which of the following is true (on average) with regard to their performance on tests of cognitive ability?
b. they display higher performance (nonverbal) scores than verbal scores
19. which of the following is true regarding the relationship between conduct problems and self-esteem?
c. conduct problems can be related to an inflated, unstable, and/or tentative view of self
20. what is/are the most common co-morbid psychological disorders in children with ADHD?
d. conduct disorder & ODD
21. the two-factor theory explains anxiety disorders as arising and persisting through a combination of:
c. classical and operant conditioning
22. which of the following anxiety disorders has the lowest rate of remission?
d. panic disorders
23. anxiety disorders in the DSM-IV are divided into categories that reflect
b. the source of the individual's reaction and avoidance
24. which of the following is true regarding the relationship between ODD and CD?
c. CD is almost always preceded by ODD
25. from the "casebook" why was ricky smith not diagnosed with the hypractive-impulsive or combined types of ADHD?
d. his behaviors of fidgeting and running around were judged to be within the range of normal 7 yr old behavior
26. the onset of spontaneous panic attacks is related to:
b. pubertal stage
27. agoraphobia can be best described as the fears of:
c. having a panic attack in situations in which escape would be difficult or help unavailable
28. neurobiological factors (e.g. low arousal and autonomic reactivity) appear to play a more central role for:
b. early onset CD
29. which symptom is believed to be a specific marker for ADHD (a symptom that distinguishes it from other psychological disorders)?
b. hyperactivity
30. the most effective treatment for most anxiety disorders in children is:
b.cognitive-behavioral therapy
31. an early symptom of conduct disorders in girls is often:
d. sexual misbehavior
32. unlike adults, children with specific phobias:
b. do not necessarily recognize that their fears are extreme and unreasonable
33. for a child whose obsession is cleanliness, what is likely to be the accompanying compulsion?
a. washing hands
34. which of the following treatments for youth conduct problems is most likely to include the participation of family members, school personnel, peers, and juvenile justice staff, and other individuals in the child's life?
d. multi-systemic treatment
35. what term refers to the tendency to attribute negative intent to others, especially when the actual intentions of the other child are unclear?
b. hostile attribution bias
36. compared to boys' aggression, girls' aggression tends to involved more:
c. relationally aggressive acts
37. neurobiological research on the causes of ADHD has shown consistent support for the implication of which brain system/structure
d. frontostriatal circuitry
38. which statement best summarizes research on the negative influence of family on ADHD symptomatology?
d. familial factors account for only a small degree of variance in ADHD symptoms, although they
many increase the severity of certain symptoms
39. which of the following interventions would be most promising as a primary approach for treating a 16-yr-old with severe conduct problems, a chaotic home environment, and a history of juvenile delinquency?
c. multisystemic treatment
40. children with ADHD who are at increased risk for conduct or oppositional problems are those who exhibit:
a. behavioral impulsivity
41. which of the following is not true about ADHD-PI?
c. children with ADHD-PI require higher doses of stimulant medication than children with ADHD-HI
42. what is the best prevalence estimate for ADHD in school-age children in North America?
b. 4-8%
43. how is the onset of symptoms of ADHD best described?
d. symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity usually emerge before symptoms of inattention
44. how are children with adolescent onset CD likely to be different than those with childhood onset CD?
d. they are less likely to persist in their antisocial behavior as they get older
45. children with shy-inhibited temperament may be less likely to develop a later anxiety disorder if:
b. their parents set firm limits that teach them how to cope with stress
46. kerney case book, bradley mavin (12-yr-old caucasian male) was asked by the therapist to self-monitor several behaviors related to his social anxiety. what 2 interesting findings emerged as a result of this activity?
a. his social anxiety was highest when he entered school, went from class to class and ate lunch in the cafeteria and 2) he demonstrated some though distortions during unpleasant social situations (he thought others were plotting to gang up on him).
47. among youth with externalizing behavior problems, (like CD), how are those with covert behavior problems usually different from those with overt behavior problems?
d. youth with covert behavior problems are usually less social, more anxious, and more
suspicious of others
48. which statement is most true with regard to the prevalence of ODD and CD prior to adolescence?
c. ODD is more prevalent than CD
49. which of the following is not an additional criterion for a diagnosis of ADHD?
a. symptoms must appear prior to age 12.
50. based on your understanding of the core attentional deficit in ADHD, which of the following tasks would likely be the most difficult for a child with ADHD?
d. completing an assignment of 200 simple math problems.
1. What term describes the absence of joy and lack of interest in activities that were previously enjoyable?
c. anhedonia
2. when mainstreamed into a regular classroom, children with mental retardation:
d. are more socially isolated because their peers seem to prefer playing with other typically developing children
3. subaverage intellectual functioning is usually operationlized as an IQ approximately:
b. two standard deviations below the mean
4. the deficits of autism become increasingly noticeable:
c. around 2 years of age
5. which category of mental retardation has an overrepresentation of minority groups?
a. mild
6. 6 yr old courtland has demonstrated a significant loss of previously acquired skills, following an apparently normal development. courtland would be most likely diagnosed with:
c. Childhood Disintegrative disorder
7. to be labeled as mental retardation, below average intellectual and adaptive abilities must:
d. be present before age 18
8. depression in children in characterized by ___ rates of initial recovery and ____ rates ore relapse
a. high, high
9. phenylketoneuria (PKU) is a(n) _________ that can cause mental retardation if untreated.
c. inborn error of metabolism
10. the two strongest predictors of adult outcomes in children with autism are:
b. IQ and language development
11. what are the prevalence estimates for major depressive disorder in all children ages 4 to 18?
b. 2% to 8%
12. occurring in about 80% of clinic referred youngsters with depression, what is one of the most common symptoms of depression in children?
a. irritability
13. the modal age of onset for schizophrenia is
d. early adulthood
14. the prevalence rates of dysthymic disorder are:
a lower than those of major depressive disorder
15. in the DSM-IV, the level of retardation, reflecting a child's degree of difficulty, is based upon:
b. the extent of cognitive impairment
16. which of the following statements about suicide is false?
b. overdose and wrist cutting are the most common means for adolescents who successfully complete suicide
17. in contrast to children with autism, most children with asperger's disorder:
c. do not display general deficits in language
18. research evidence points to a heritability of intelligence of approximately:
50%
19. the tendency of children with autism to focus on certain types of sensory input over others is known as:
c. sensory dominance
20. during the eugenics movement, persons with mental retardation were considered:
b. a threat to society
21. the AAIDD (formerly AAMR) categorizes persons with mental retardation according to:
c. the extent of support needed
22. Early theories about autism attributed the autistic child's behaviors to:
c. the parent's wish that the child did not exist
23. which of the following communicative behaviors is a child with autism most likely to engage in?:
c. using gestures to get a desired toy
24. what is/are the most frequent co-occurring disorder in clinic-referred youngsters with major depressive disorder?
c. anxiety disorder
25. which of the following approaches has shown the most short- and long-term success in the treatment of major depressive disorder?
d. cognitive-behavioral therapy
26. which of the following statements regarding the causes of mental retardation is false?
a. the causes of mild mental retardation are better understood than the causes of moderate to severe mental retardation
27. prevalence estimates for mental retardation in children and adults are about ___ of the entire population
b. 1-3%
28. which of the following statements about the social skills of children with autism is true?
a. children with autism experience profound difficulties relating to others, even when they have average or above-average intelligence
29. major depressive disorder in children is more likely to occur after the onset of other psychiatric disorders except:
d. substance abuse
30. a child with autism who struggles with their focus of attention on another person and an object of mutual interest is showing impairments in:
b. joint social attention
31. which of the following statements is most true regarding the use of antidepressant medication in young people?
a. SSRI's can be effective in reducing symptoms of depression, but serious concerns have arisen regarding long-term consequences of their use
32. what term refers to the proportion of variance in a trait attributable to genetic influences?
c. heritability
33. "anaclitic depression: was the term used by renee spitz in the 1940s to describe the pattern of behavior he saw in:
a. institutionalized infants
34. the most common presenting symptoms for children with schizophrenia is:
a. auditory hallucinations
35. which of the following is the most common coexisting physical/medical condition for children with autism?
d. epilepsy
36. the majority of individuals with mental retardation are ____retarded
a. mildly
37. based on prospective studies of children and adolescents, what it eh typical age of onset for a first major depressive episode?
c. 13-15
38. depression prone individuals tend to make _____ attributions for the causes of negative events.
c. internal stable, global
39. for children with autism, which of the following is an example of a deficit in central coherence?
c. the tendency to process information in bits and pieces rather than looking at the big picture
40. which statement best describes findings on gender differences in children with autism??
c. autism is more common in boys, more debilitating in girls
41. the earlier and mistaken belief that children could not suffer from depression was rooted in:
b. psychoanalytic theory
42. what syndrome is the most common form of mental retardation resulting from chromosomal abnormalities
c. down syndrome
43. the primary language deficit of children with autism (who develop language) is:
d. pragmatics
44. which of the following is not an associated physical characteristic of individuals with autism?
c. cleft palate
45. which of the following is true regarding gender differences in the prevalence of depression among males and females
b. depression is equally common among preadolescence boys and girls, but after about age 13 the rate is higher for females
46. a child with mental retardation but not autism is more likely to display _______ than is a child with autism
b. smiling and eye contact
47. the more severe forms of mental retardation are more likely due to ______ causes than is mild mental retardation
d. organic
48. a child with autism that has theory of mind (ToM) deficits will
d. none of the above (a. attributes others' actions to a specific intent, b. hypothesize about other's mental states, c. make attributions of others' feelings based on their behaviors)
49. children with autism perform surprisingly well on which of the following tasks?
b. embedded figures
50. the Young Autism Project, an early intensive behavioral intervention for autism was developed at UCLA by __________
d. Ivar Lovaas