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44 Cards in this Set

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According to Thorndike, why did the cats initially bat at the string in the puzzle box?
Suggested that changes in behavior were based on passive selection that was regulated by reinforcement
What does Thorndike's law of effect suggest?
Stimulus-response reflexes that are followed by a satisfying event are strengthened while those followed by an annoying event are weakened
Why did Skinner object to Thordike's theory?
Reflexive = Elicited= Instrumental
Voluntary = Emitted= Operant
Emitted behaviors are ‘operant behaviors’ (behaviors that the subjects uses to ‘operate’ on the environment).
Why did Tolman have problems with the law of effect?
There was more cognition involved and memory???
Animals chose shortes paths
Tolman's Experiments
Had rats running through a maze through one of three paths, rats always took the easiest path that was available
Formal Criteria for Instrumental Conditioning
The behavioral modification depends on a form of neural plasticity.
The modification depends on the organisms experiential history
A) The modification outlasts the environmental contingencies used to induce it, B) the experience has a lasting effect on performance
Imposing a temporal relationship between a response (R) and an outcome (O) alters the response. [ NEW!!!]
Formal Criteria for Operant Conditioning
The behavioral modification depends on a form of neural plasticity.
The modification depends on the organisms experiential history
A) The modification outlasts the environmental contingencies used to induce it, B) the experience has a lasting effect on performance
Imposing a temporal relationship between a response (R) and an outcome (O) alters the response.
The nature of the behavioral change is not constrained.
The nature of the reinforcer is not constrained.
[Last 2 new!!]
What are the three general dimensions that training paradigms differ along?
1)the kind of reinforcer (appetitive or aversive)
2) the nature of the response-outcome relation (reinforced or not reinforced)
3) the presence/ absence of a discriminative stimulus
appetitive
good or positive
aversive
bad or negative
What does reward training involve?
an appetitive substance used for reinforcement
continous reinforcement
you get rewards continously for behavior responses
fixed interval reinforcement
you get rewards at a set time for set intervals say a 2min schedule
What does variable reinforcement involve?
given rewards at random
omission
appetitive outcome is omitted
punishment
Response reinforced with an aversive stimulus
escape
The aversive outcome is prevented
What does the presence of a discrimintative stimulus do?
Informs the subject about when its behaviors will be effective.
Learning with a discrimintative stimulus
avoidance learning
What does the response deprivation hypothesis suggest?
An effective operant contingency depends on just one fact- it must deprive the organism of the consequent response.
What does the backward bending labor supply curve suggest?
That there is an ideal amount of pay to give employees to maximize their productivity, don't give them too much or too little
Can the spinal cord learn instrumental relationships?
YES, the lumbar and sacral region learn relationship btwn shock and leg flexion
Spinal Cords leg flexion and shock
flex leg no shock, extend leg shock, master rat stops extending as much, yoked doesnt b/c of Phase 1 induced learning deficit, unshocked learn slower in phase two but learn
Howlong does learning deficit last in yoked rats?
48-72hrs
How do we know that the spinal cord is learning a R-O relationship, that the change is based on neural plasticity?
Maintainence experiment where the task is more difficult but the principle it the same aka 8mm vs 4mm
How do we know that spinal cord learning has lasting effect?
Maintainence experiment
What training paradigm best describes learning in the spinal cord?
Punishment training
What cellular mechanism do we think underlies instrumental learning in the spinal cord (and the learning deficit)?
Central Sensitization; MK-801 blocks learning and the learning deficit,Inhibition of BDNF blocks learning,PKC inhibitor, Bisindolylmaleimide-I (i.t), blocks the induction of the deficit, basically it seems they use the same receptors etc
What does intrdermal capsaicin do at the spinal level? Wha does it do to instrumental learning?
CAUSES PAIN = Punishment training
Kamin's Rat Experiment
1. Pavlovian conditioning
Tone + Shock Pain
Tone + Limb movement  No pain
2. Instrumental conditioning
Pain  Fear
No pain  reduced fear
To extinguish response need to prevent the rewarding outcome.
 escape from pain  extinction
4 groups: no shock, no tone, yoked, control
no shock learned best, no tone second best, yoked did not learn!!!
How would you extinguish an acquired drive that is supported by conditioned inhibition?
Flooding (No escape: expose the subject to stimulus until fear response extinguished)

Systematic desensitization
a. Create fear hierarchy, b. learn to relax major muscle groups, c. relax in presence of phobic stimuli
Systematic Desensitization
Dr. Hooks fear of flying
1. Create Fear Hierarchy: list fear level low to high
2.Calm yourself at each step
3.Relax during flight
FES
functional electrical stimulation
used to facilitate the performance of motor behaviors in the spinally injured. Involves the application of electrical currents to stimulate muscle or nerve groups through surface or implanted electrodes.
Focuses on the motor consequences of stimulation elicited by the activation of muscles
How do researchers study post-traumatic stress disorder in the laboratory?
Fear conditioning is used as a model of PTSD
Drug self-administration studies use what type of training paradigm?
Self administration studies are used to examine drug addiction. Subjects trained to lever press or nose poke for an injection of a drug (instrumental conditioning)
PREE
Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect

extinction is slower after partial reinforcement training
What did Hull and Thorndike suggest we learn in instrumental conditioning?
stimulus-response relationships

WRONG
What did Tolman think we learn in instrumental conditioning?
Response-Outcome relationships

RIGHT
Do rats learn response-outcome relationships?
YES!
Codwill and Rescorla
Toggle R Sugar Water
Toggle L Food
Depriciate Food, they toggle R way more often
Do rats learn Stimulus-Outcome relationships?
YES!
Codwill and Rescorla
Light - lever press
Noise - chain pull
Rats used discriminative stimulus to decide behavior
Do rats learn hierarchal relationships?
Light- Nose Poke
Noise- Bar Press
Food Available
Used hierarchal relationships to determine actions
The light and noise act as discrimintative stimuli
Bliss Point
the extent to which the organism would engage in behaviors in a completely unconstrained environment
Who developed the minimun deviation model?
Staddon
Minimum deviation model
assumed internal machinery minimizes distance between current state and bliss point