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113 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
psychology
scientific investigation of mental processes and behavior
4 goals of psych
1. describe
2. understand and explain
3. predict
4. control
biological perspective
understand mind and behavior through bio processes in brain
psychodynamic perspective
conscious and unconsicous focuses determine behavior
behaviorist perspective
environmental impact on person's actions
cognitive perspective
focus on storage and retrevial of info
evolutionary perspective
adaptive behavior traits
humanistic perspective
stresses free will
feminist perspective
stresses gender and behavior of sexes
sociocultrual perspective
identify social rules, roles and influences of group behavior
Gesalt perspective
looks at elements of experiments organized as a whole
developmental
change and growth over lifespan
social
individual and group behavior and responses across situations
social behavior
show up at a party overdressed
experimental
condut lab studies of learning, motivation and emiotions
physiological
looks at genetic influences and factors on behaviors
cognitive
explores upper level mental precesses
personality
define, describe and measure stability of behaviors and personality
psychometric
looks at measures of behavior through developments of tests
continuous variable
can be described over time
categorical variable
fixed meaning... yes or no
validity
does it measure what it's supposed to measure?
reliability
consistant results
experimental method
explores change in variable of interest
sampling bias
skewed samples will have results which dont generalize
extraneous variable
variable other than idenedent that impacts results
confounding of variables
variable which interacts, making it difficult to know true impact of idepent.
demand characteristics
subjects may behave in ways thet are expected of them
naturalistic observation
looks at behavior in a natural environment
correlational studies
explore relationship between two variables using scale
conscious
mental events we are aware of
preconscious
mental events that can be brought to our awareness
unconscious
mental events inaccessible to our awareness
circadian cycle
mental internal clock
f(x) of sleep
energy conservation
REM
active brainwaves, increase heart rate, increase blood pressure
3 parts of brain
forebrain, hindbrain, midbrain
medulla
regulates automatic functions
pons
regulates sleeping, walking and dreaming
cerebellum
balance and coordination of movement, analyzes sensory info.. affected by alcohol
reticular formation
modulates muscle reflexes, pain
tectum
vision and hearing.. control auditory
tegmentum
helps function movement and arousal
thalamus
relays motor impulses out of brain; directs incoming sensory messages; 4 'f's
hypothalamus
hunger, thirst, emotion
pituitary gland
master gland; directs secreation of hormones
limbic system
loosely interconnecter area of strustures in emotions
amygdala
evulates sensory info; fear response
hippocampus
formation and storage of memories
occipital lobe
contains visual cortex
parietal lobe
somatosensory cortex
temporal lobe
involved in memory perception
Wernicke's area
language comprehension
frontal lobe
contains the motor cortex; making plans, taking inifiatives
Broca's area
speech production
prefrontal lobe
personality; feelings
left brain dominance
production and comprehension of speech, reading ability
right brain dominance
visual and spatial ability; art and music
genotype
genetic makeup of organism
phenotype
observable or expressed characteristics of an organism
multifactorial transmission
environmental factors interact w/genetic factors to people's traits
perception
active process of porcessing of organizing stimuli input and giving it meanign
signal detection theory
various factors influence our sensory judgement
Weber's law
difference theshold is direcctly portational to magnatiude of stimulis to which being compared
cornea
where light waves enter
pupil
adjusts to control amount of light that enters eye
iris
control's pupil's size
lens
focuses images onto retina
optic disk
hole in retina;
rods
b&w; brightness receptor
cones
color receptors
hue
commonly what is meant by color
trichromatic theory
blue, gree and red
opponent process theory
each type of cone responds to two different wavelengths
auditory canal
where sound waves enter
ear drum
moveable membrane which vibrates in response to sound
cochlea
inner ear; hair= sound receptors
olfactory receptors
detects smells
taste
bitter, sour, sweet, salty
kinesthetics
body's way of giving feedback about our mescle and join position
vestibular
in innner ear; helps w/balance
perceptual schemas
mental repressutations for comparisons
form perception
organizing of sensations into meaningful shapes and patterns
perceptual constancy
objects appear to be relatively stable despite change in stimulation of sensory recptors
central nervous system
brain and spinal cord; receiving, processing and storing incoming info; sends out messages too; central command system
peripheral nervous system
nervous system outside brain and sc; connects brain and sc to other areas of body
neuron
individual cell which receive and transmit info
sensory neuron
carry info to brain from skin/organs
motor neurons
carry brain's output to muscels and glands
interneurons
traffic controllers
glial cells
help hold nuerons in placw
dendrites
receives messages from other neurons
cell soma
keep neurons alive
axon
transmit messages away formc ell body to other neurons
synapses
gaps between neurons
neurontransmitter
chemical substance which carry info across synaptic gays
excitatory
increase the likelyhood it will fire an action potential
inhibitory
decrease likelyhood it will fire an action potential
serotonin
involved in sleep, mood and depression
dopamine
involved in learning, memory and pleasureable emotion
acetylcholine
muscle action, memory and attention
GABA
inhibitory neurotransmitter, lower levels have higher levels of anxiety
melatonin
regulates biological rythem
somatic nervous system
relay info from skin and muscles to CNS about pain and feelings
autonomic nervous system
works automatically; breathing, hrv, digestion
sympathetic nervous system
mobilizes body for action; danger
parasympathetic nervous system
mobilizes body for saftely; safe
hilgard
altered level of consciousness
spanos
subjects interpret their behavior as caused by something other than self
rituals
hypnosis increase suggestability and creat expectations
psychoactive drugs
affects perception, mood and thinking by changing body chemistry
stimulants
speed up activity in CNS
narcotics/opiates
mimic endorphins, increase pleasure, decrease pain