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67 Cards in this Set

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social exchange theory definition
all human interactions can be viewed in terms of the exchange of mutually rewarding activities
social exchange theory strengths
simplicity of its assumption
social exchange theory short comings
the suggestion that we conduct ourselves in a similar fashion with intimate others, as well as strangers
rewards
it can be anything a person values
costs
giving another person a reward usually results in this
variety of resources exchanged
love, status, information, money, goods, and services
equity theory
people closely examine their outcomes relative to their inputs and then compare the results to their partner's inputs and outcomes
reactions to inequity (under-benefitted)
their outcomes, relative to their inputs, may be lower than their partner's and lead to feelings of anger, unhappiness, and exploitation
reactions to inequity (over-benefitted)
relative to their inputs, exceed those of their partner, should lead to feelings of guilt
Thibaut and Kelly Model
people evaluate their relationship against two standards
Thibaut and Kelly Model comparison level
what people expect to get or deserve from a relationship
Thibaut and Kelly Model comparison level for alternatives
people contrast their current relationship outcomes with outcomes they could possibly obtain from an alternative relationship
communal relationships
benefits are given based upon need with little or no consideration of reciprocity, initiating reciprocity in this type of relationship can be viewed as absurd and lead to confusion and bewilderment on behalf of the partner receiving tit-for-tat benefit
the prototype of love (Rubin)
liking/loving attitude scales
liking: favorable evaluation of the other, respect for the other, the perception of similarity
loving: affiliation and dependent need, exclusiveness and absorption, a predisposition to help
Fehr's central features of love
trust, caring, honesty, friendship, respect, concern for other's well-being, loyalty, commitment, acceptance, supportiveness
Love as a misattribution of arousal
any arousal producing event has the potential to intensify feelings of love as long as there is some ambiguity about the origin of the arousal
love as preoccupation with other
persistent thinking of the love object may intensify feelings of love in that our original positive evaluation may result in a continuation of congruent thoughts
Lee's color of love Eros
passion and strong attraction to the physical appearance of the other
Lee's color of love Storge
companionate love that develops from friendship
Lee's color of love Ludus
playful, short term love
Lee's color of love Secondary love style Mania
a mix of eros and Ludus, a dependent and possessive love style
Lee's color of love Secondary love style Pragma
a mix of storge and ludus- a logical and practical love style
Lee's color of love Secondary love style Agape
a mix of Eros and Storge- an altruistic love style
Sternberg's triangular theory of love
Love consists of three basic components: intimacy, passion, decision and commitment
Passionate Love
characterized by intense longing for a complete union with the love partner
Companionate Love
possession of intimacy, rather than the longing thereof-may be lower in passion but describes a deep connection with the person with whom the partner's life is deeply intertwined
Transactive memory
a shared system of encoding, storing and retrieving information that is greater than the individual memories
Strange situation paradigm
allowed for the observation of children's responses to being separated from their mother's
Bowlby
Asked by the World health organization to study mental health problems in children orphaned or separated from their parents
Three attachment styles-via Bowlby
secure, anxiously, and avoidantly attached children
Haven and Shaver's love quiz and research
posted a love quiz in the rocky mountain news, and over 1,200 adults responded to the 95 question questionnaire; included items that assessed attachment, the percentages of adults endorsing each of the three attachment styles was similar to samples of infant attachment
Internal working models of attachment
Object relations theorists propose that infant attachment becomes that ______ regarding the nature of other close relationships
Bartholomew's four styles
proposed four styles based on the valence of beliefs people have about themselves and others
Bartholomew's four styles- Secure
remained the same
Bartholomew's four styles- Preoccupied
replaced anxious-ambivalent-nervously depend on others for approval and greedily seek approval and are preoccupied with relationships
Bartholomew's four styles- Fearful
emerged out of avoidant- avoid intimacy because they fear rejection and want others to like them but consider it a big risk
Bartholomew's four styles-Dismissing
emerged also out of avoidant-intimacy is just not worth the trouble
Attitudes about Sex
Americans have been ambivalent in their attitudes, sexual matters can be traced to our Victorian and Puritan roots, television continued to censor sexual content of music including the Rolling stones appearance on the Ed Sullivan show
Alfred Kinsey
two-volume report of pioneering research on human sexuality published by this man and colleagues
Sexual Pathways- why we have sex
1. physical reasons 2. goal attachment. 3. insecurity 4. emotional reasons.
hook-ups
a dating practice involving casual, usually a one time only sexual encounter between acquaintances or even strangers
Sex and the Married couple
2 times per week
Homophobia
may be the outcome of latent homosexual tendencies as well as because of essentialist beliefs that may derive from certain religious and cultural beliefs
Heterosexism
discrimination or prejudice from heterosexuals toward homosexuals
The EBE model
proposes that variables influence sexual orientation by shaping childhood temperament, which predisposes children toward sex-typical or sex-atypical activities
Homophobia
may be the outcome of latent homosexual tendencies as well as because of essentialist beliefs that may derive from certain religious and cultural beliefs
The exotic becomes erotic
proposes that homosexuality originates in a specific sequence of events in which both biology and experimental factors come into play
Heterosexism
discrimination or prejudice from heterosexuals toward homosexuals
The gay brother effect
Bogaert suggested that the greater number of older biological brothers, the higher the probability that younger brothers will be gay
The EBE model
proposes that variables influence sexual orientation by shaping childhood temperament, which predisposes children toward sex-typical or sex-atypical activities
The exotic becomes erotic
proposes that homosexuality originates in a specific sequence of events in which both biology and experimental factors come into play
The gay brother effect
Bogaert suggested that the greater number of older biological brothers, the higher the probability that younger brothers will be gay
Sex typical
preferring activities related to your gender, e.g. boys enjoying rough and tumble play
Sex-atypical
preferring activities that are gender-noncomforming. e.g. girls preferring rough and tumble play.
gender differences for men
conversation is the way you negotiate your status in the group, use talk to preserve your independence, activities, doing things together, are central
gender differences for women
use conversation to negotiate closeness and intimacy, being best friends means sitting and talking
Topical cohesion
the extent to which topics introduced to a conversation are related; characterized by covering a lot of topics in a short amount of time whereas women like to talk in depth about fewer topics
interruptions
simultaneous speech that penetrated into the structure of the speaker’s utterances which occurs before a possible transition place in the original speaker’s turn
interruption overlaps
errors in transition that occur on or about the final word of the speaker
Confirmation interruptions
responses which express approval, understanding or acceptance of A’s position
Rejection interruptions
responses from B, which somehow indicate disagreement or disapproval of A
Disconfirmation interruptions
the most dysfunctional types of communication, because they negate the reality of A as a source of self-definition
Interruption Research
violate normal conversational rules are negative or undesirable behaviors represent an attempt to exercise power and to dominate and control, men interrupt women 96% of the time
Gender differences in politeness
women tend to be more polite, men may be polite depending upon the perceived power differential, however there is no significant difference in the gender speech styles
Tag Questions
adding a question at the end of a statement; women do this to attain certainty “we’re eating out, aren’t we?” women tend to use this more often to promote solidarity, men for uncertainty
Gender differences if emotionality and support
women-inquire about an upsetting situation, provide emotional support, seek emotional support from others, feel confident about their ability to provide support, place a high value on support giving skills, employ supportive strategies directed at emotions and are encouraged to express their emotions and to offer emotional support whereas men are encouraged to keep emotions hidden and not to express sadness and distress
Long distance relationships
couples find ways to cope with separation, found to have higher levels of idealization and romantic love, greater perceived agreement, and more relational reminiscence than proximal couples