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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
need to belong
motivation to bond with others in a relationships that provide ongoing positive interactions
proximity
geographical nearness, (functional distance powerfully predicts liking)
mere-exposure effect
tendency for novel stimuli to be liked more or rated more positively after the rater has been repeatedly exposed to them
implicit egotism
we like what we associate with ourselves
matching phenomenon
tendency of men and women to "match up" traits including attractiveness and wealth
physical-attractiveness stereotype
presumption that physically attractive people possess other socially desirable traits as well: What is beautiful is good
complementarity
popularly supposed tendency, in a relationship btwn two people, for each to complete what is missing in the other
ingratiation
use of strategies, such as flattery, by which people seek to gain another's favor
reward theory of attraction
theory that we like those whose behavior is rewarding to us or whom we associate with rewarding events
passionate love
a state of intense longing for union with another, lovers absorbed in each other
two-factor theory of emotion
arousal X its label = emotion
companionate love
affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply interwined
secure attachment
attachments rooted in trust and marked by intimacy
preoccupied attachment
attachments marked by a sense of one's own unworthiness and anxiety, ambivalence, and possessiveness
dismissive attachment
an avoidant relationshipstyle marked by distrust of others
fearful attachment
an avoidant relationship style marked by fear of rejection
equity
a condition in which the outcomes people receive from a relationship are proportional to what they contribute to it
self-disclosure
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
disclosure reciprocity
tendency for one person's intimacy of self-disclosure to match that of a conversational partner
altruism
a motive to increase another's welfare without conscious regard for one's self-interests
social-exchange theory
theory that human interactions are transactions that aim to maximize one's rewards and minimize one's costs
egoism
a motive to increase one's own welfare, the opposite of altruism, which aims to increase another's welfare
reciprocity norm
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them
social capital
mutual support and cooperation enabled by a social network
social-responsibility norm
expectation that people will help those needing help
kin selection
idea that evolution has selected altruism towards one's close relatives to enhance the survival of mutually shared genes
empathy
vicarious experience of another's feelings, putting yourself in another's shoes
bystander effect
finding that a person is less likely to provide help when there are other bystanders
door-in-the-face technique
a strategy for gaining a concession, Big offer-rejection-
moral exclusion
perception of certain individuals or groups as outside the boundary w/in which one applies moral values and rules of fairness. Moral inclusion is regarding others as within one's circle of moral concern.
overjustification effect
result of bribing people to do what they already like doing; they may then see their actions as externally controlled rather than intrinsically appealing
adaption-level phenomenon
tendency to adapt to a given level of stimulation and thus to notice and react to changes from that level
social comparison
evaluating one's abilities and opinions by comparing oneself with others
PREE
extinction slower after training with partial reinforcement schedules
STANDS FOR:
What did Hull and Thorndike suggest we learned in instrumental conditioning?
Stimulus-Response relationship
What did Tolman think we learned in instrumental conditioning?
Response-Outcome relationship
Rats learn response-outcome relationships
Rescorla and Codwill study with rats toggling right vs toggling left and food pellet versus sugar water
Rats learn hierarchal relationships
Describe experiment here
Bliss point
extent to which the organism would engage in the behaviors in a completely unconstrained environment
Who developed the minimum deviation model?
Staddon
What does the minimum deviation model suggest motivates learning when you are faced with an instrumental training program?
minimizing the distance to the bliss point
What theory of motivation did Timberlake and Allison propose?
Response Deprivation Hypothesis