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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
representing mental represenations for a purpose
mental representation of a cAtegory that is, an internal portrait of a class of objects, ideas, or events that share common properties.
the process of identifying an object as an instance of a category-regognizing its similarity to some objects
Well Defined
concepts that have properties clearly setting them apart from other concepts
an abstraction across many instances of a category
process by which people generate and evaluate arguements and beliefs
Inductive Reasoning
reasoning from specific observations to more general propositions that seem likely to be true
Deductive reasoning
logical reasoning that draws conclusions from premises and leads to certainty if the premises are correct
Analogical Reasoning
process by which people understand a novel situation in terms of a familiar one
Problem solving
process of transforming one situation into another to meet a goal, by identifying discrepancies between the initial state and
the goal state and using various operators to try to eliminate the discrepancies.
Problem solving strategies
techniques that serve as guides for solving a problem.
Mental simulation
imagining the steps involved in solving a problem mentally before actualy undertaking them.
Decision making
people weigh the pros and cons of different alternatives in order to make a choice
Explicit cognition
involves conscious manipulation of representations
cognative shortcuts
Bounded Rationality
within limits imposed by environment and goals
Implicit Cognition
cognition outside of awareness
prarllel distributed processing (PDP)
PDP - many cognitive processes occur simultaneously in parallel and distrubuted throughout a network of interacting neural processing units.
Constraint Satisfaction
process through which perception, memory, and thought occur: solution that satisfies most constraints
frontal lobes
important in thinking
orsolateral prefrontal cortex
associates complex ideas, allocating attention, making plans, and forming and executing intentions
entromedial prefrontal cortex
emotional control over decision making, inhibiting actions that lead to negative cnosequences and social
rules for their combination that constitutes the primary mode of communication among humans.
smallest units of speech
smallest units of meaning
groups of words combined into sentances
the way language is used and understood in every day life
the way people ordinarily speak, hear, read, and write
a rational decision involves value and probability providing
an estimate to its expected utility
one of the most important problem-solving strategies is
mental simulation
many concepts are not easily defined by
a precise set of features
people tend to categorize objects on
the basic level - broadest