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76 Cards in this Set

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biological psychology
branch of psych linked between biology and behavior, bhavioral neuroscientists.
neuron
a nerve cell, basic building block of the nervous system.
dendrite
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive impulses and conduct messages toward the body.
axon
extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through wich messages pass to other neurons, muscles, or glands.
myelin sheath
layer of fatty tissue protecting the axon, speeds up impulse passage
action potential
a neural impulse, electrical charge that travels down the axon. generated by the movement of + atoms in and out of the axon's membrane.
threshold
level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
synapse
junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron, synaptic gap.
neurotransmitters
messangers that travel between the synaptic gap. When relesed, they travel to receptor sites influencing whether the neuron will generate an impulse.
acetelcholine
a neurotransmitter that triggers muscle contractions.
endorphins
natural neurotransmitters related to pain control and pleasure
Central Nervous System (CNS)
brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body
nerves
cables containing many axons. part of the PNS that connect the CNS to muscles, glands and organs.
sensory neurons
neurons that carry incoming info from sensory receptors to the CNS
interneurons
CNS neurons that communicate between sensory inputs and motor outputs.
motor neuron
neurons that carry info from the CNS to muscles and glands
Somatic Nervous System
division of PNS that controls the body's skeletal muscles.
Autonomic Nervous System
part of the PNS that controls glands and muscles of internal organs. Sypathetic division arouses, parasympathetic calms.
Sympathetic
part of ANS that arouses the body
Parasympathetic
part of ANS that calms and conserves energy
reflex
automatic, inborne response to stimulus.
neural networks
interconected neural cells.
Endocrine System
the body's slow communication system, glands that secrete hormones into bloodstream
hormones
chemical messangers from glands that affect tissue
adrenal glands
just above kidneys, secrete adrenaline and noradrenaline which help arouse the body in times of stress
pituitary gland
most influential gland, under infulence of hypothalamus, controls all other endocrine glands.
lesion
tissue destruction in the brain, naturally or medically severed
EEG
recording of electrical waves of brain activity, measured by electrodes placed on scalp.
CAT Scan
series of x-rays of brain for a representation of slices of the body.
PET Scan
visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes after stimulus.
MRI
magnetic fields used to see soft tissue
brainstem
core of the brain, where spinal cord swells near brain, responsible for automatic survival functions.
medulla
base of brainstem, controls heartbeat and breathing
reticular formation
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays and important role in controlling arousal.
reticular formation
nerve network that controls arousal
thalamus
on top of brainstem, directs messages to the cortex and brings replies to the cerebellum and medulla
cerebellum
attatched to brain stem, coordinates balance and voluntary movement
limbic system
system of neural structures at brainstem and cerebral that controls emotions such as fear, agression, drives for sex and and food. includes hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala
amygdala
almond shaped cluster linked to emotion: fight or flight
hypothalamus
a neural structure below thalamus, directs eating drinking, hunger, body temp, and governs the endocrine system
cerebral cortex
the fabric of interconnected neural cells that cover the cerebral hemis, ultimate control center
glial cells
support and protect neurons in the nervous system
frontal lobes
portion of cerbral cortex involved in speaking, muscle movement, and judgement
parietal lobe
portion of cortex that includes sensory cortex, all senses but sight
occipital lobe
back of the head, vision and visual info
temporal lobe
hearing, opposite sides of head
motor cortex
area at rear of fromtal lobe that controls voluntary movement
sensory cortex
registers body sensations
association areas
not involved in motor or sensory activity, higher mental activity such as learning
aphasia
impairment of language, speaking, when damage is in the Broca's area or Wernicke's area.
Broca's Area
directs muscle movement for speech, sends sound and word to be spoken
Wernicke's Area
controls language reception, interprets word and definition
Angular Gyrus
turns vision from occipital lobe into interpreted word form
plasticity
brain development, brain's capacity for repairing damage and reorganization
Corpus Callosum
fibers connecting 2 halfs of the brain, carries messages. Epilepsy and seizures if damaged.
split brain
2 hemispheres are surgically separated
pyrimidal cells
send info to m otor neurons and connect to muscle (multipolar), take info in (unipolar), or send info to the brain (bipolar)
chemical electrical charge
how fast the nerves move for survival
resting potential
nerve yet to fire
action potential
nerve firing
refractory period
when nerve cell is going back to resting potential after firing
vesicle
neurotransmitters that go across synaptic gap, find port on dendryte, and create a wave of impulse
re-uptake
blocks synaptic gap, such as drugs, from allowing neurons to connect to dendrite base
curare
blocks acetelcholine, which inhibits moving ability
seretonin
affects CNS and PNS, sleep, mood, emotions. Too little= alzheimer's, too much= OCD, depression
dopamine
too much= schizo, too little= parkinson's.
parkinson's
tremor's, stiffness, lack of balance or posture
Somatic and Automatic
somatic= snesory and motor neurons, voluntary
automatic= digestion, heart rate
Pineal gland
affects sleep and awakefullness
thyroid
metablolism
pancreas
blood sugar, insulin, hunger and eating
adrenal
stimulates immune system, stress response
hind brain
top of spinal cord, brain stem, medulla, ret. form, thalamus, cerebellum
mid brain
limbic system, amygdala, hypo, deficiency syndrome= rewards center
fore brain
cerebral cortex= higher thinking, broca, gyrus, carpus, lobes