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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Gf-gc theory
distinguishes two general intelligences; crystallized and fluid
crystallized intelligence
people's store of knowledge, such as vocab and general knowledge
Fluid intelligence
intellectual capacities that have no specific content but are used in processing info and approaching novel problems; ex: drawing inferences
Investment theory
talent(gf) and investment = knowledge(gc)
Spearman's Two Factor Theory
distinguished general and specific factors
gen. intelligence
explain differences in correlations between different pairs of measures; spec. ability unique to certain tests or shared by only subset of tests
positive manifold
all cognitive ability tests are correlated
flynn effect
IQ has been rising 3 pts. per decade since 1930's; when adopted, child will have higher IQ if raised in a high IQ family
Learning disorder
low academic achievement due to cognitive dysfunction
poor reading caused primarily by phonological awareness, memory retrieval speed, and working memory
poor math skills caused by deficits in working memory and visio/spatial
poor writing skills
Nonverbal learning disorder
vis-spatial deficits that interfere w/ the ability to understand vis. info, emotions and body language
Which cognitive abilities decrease with age?
crystallized intelligence, long-term memory retrieval
What is g?
general intelligence
Why is it said that g exists?
Because all tests are related
How is g measured?
by IQ tests-good IQ tests measure variety of abilities
With which sorts of benefits is IQ correlated?
academic achievement, occupational functioning and income, creativity, health and brain size, emotional well-being, and near-sightedness
What happens to correlation between adoptive relatives IQ over time? Bio relatives?
In early years, child's intelligence is raised if in high IQ family; permanent benefit but very little beneft
Which sorts of things are known to increase and decrease IQ scores?
every year of missed school-5 pts.; Head Start-benefits wear off; nutrition and public health
Which cognitive abilities tend to be lower in people w/ dyslexia
What are the differences between familial and organic mental retardation?
Fam-siblings also have lower than avg. IQ; org-average siblings
The Four Horsemaen of the Apocalypse
reference to the book of Revelations
emotional, cognitive, and behavioral tendencies that constitute underlying personality dimensions on which individuals vary
Lexical hypothesis
important personality distinctions are embedded in language
Big Five Model of Personality
trait theory which asserts that personality consists of five traits: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, neuroticism
basic personality disposition heavily influenced by genes
reservoir of sexual and aggressive energy; driven by impulses
balance desire,reality, and morality; rational, logicaland goal directed
Super ego
conscience and source of ideas-parental voice within person
Defense mechanisms
unconscious mental processes aimed @ protecting person from unpleasant emotions or bolstering pleasurable emotions
person keeps thoughts/memories that would be too threatening to acknowledge from awareness
similar to repression but person refuses to acknowledge external realities
person attributes his own unacknowledged feelings on others
converting sexual or aggressive impulses into socially acceptable
person explains away actions in logical way to avoid uncomfortale feelings, especially guilt
Reaction formation
person turns unacceptable feelings into their opposites
deciding to not think about a stressor; most healty in respect to repression adn denial
Michel's Critique of Personality Psycholgoy
if personality is not consistent, psychologists have nothing to measure
Situational variables
circumstances in which people find themselves
Person-by-situation interactions
people express particular traits in particular situations
Roger's Person-centered approach
most widely used humanistic theory of personality; believed that humans are basically good but their personality becomes distored by interpersonal experiences
Capacity to understand another person's experience cognitively and emotionally
True self
core aspect of being, untainted by demans of those around
false self
mask people wear and ultimatelymistake to be their true face
ideal self
person's view of what she should look like
Existential dread
recognition that life has no absolute value and meaning; we all face death
Idiographic approach
principles that can only by applied to understand single individual
Nomothetic approach
General laws about personality that can be applied to all
80%of first criticisms come from wives
Wife's more important
Husband's more important
85% are men
Emotional flooding and neg. sentiment override
Overrides all positive things
Failed repair attempts
try to repair negativity but it doesn't work
Bad memories
rewriting history
high negativity by no Horsemen; talk past eachother(no resolution); negativity balanced by passion and humor
exact opposite of volatiles; avoid conflict; agree to disagree; low passion and humor
disagree but try to understand eachother; high intimacy; moderate passion
For couples that do not divorce, what is the ration of pos. interations to neg. interactions?