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17 Cards in this Set

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Group definition
2+ people who have direct interactions with each other over an extended period of time and share a common fate
3 features of group
Members have roles (expected behaviors for people who have certain positions…formal or informal)
Understand and follow group norm (expected behavior…implicitly understood to be appropriate)…sports team rituals, how dress with family or friends
Members experience cohesiveness pressure (situational force that binds you together)
Collective definition
2+ people who are engaging in a common activity but who have little interaction with each other
We are not talking about this here
Not really doing it together or interacting with e/o..tends to be shorter term
Deindivituation
Loss of individuality, which reduces normal constraints on behavior
We don’t feel like individuals..
Happens when something in the environment tells you that you wont be held accountable for your actions
Increase in impulsive or deviant acts
Deindividuation can lead to this
Deindividuation results from environmental cues that decrease..(2)
accountability and attention to self
Social facilitation
Says that the presence of other people increases arousal..feeling the arousal strengthens your dominant response (more likely to make response to great degree)..if it is something easy, it enhances your performance because correct dominant response comes easily…and vice versa with difficult task

only when your individual performance can be attributed to you
Dominate response
basically how you would do if nobody watching
Evaluation apprehension (source 1 of arousal)
Fear of being evaluated by others
Makes you aware that they can evaluate you..maybe nervous about how we look
How to test?
Distraction conflict (source 2 of arousal)
Attention divided between task and audience
Having other people there is simply a distraction..divided attention
How to test?
social loafing
When in the presence of others…
AND performance CANNOT be individually evaluated…
People tend to do worse on easy tasks and better on difficult tasks
Groupthink
Decision-making is impaired when maintaining group harmony is emphasized over accurate judgment
4 things that lead to groupthink
High cohesiveness
Important common goals, stress from outside
Stressful times
Also a contributer (should we invate Cuba…not, where we should go to dinner)
Directive leader
Where there is an opinionated leader..in cartoon
Isolation
Makes it in isolation..bad decision
Groupthink group symptoms
High cohesiveness
Important common goals, stress from outside
Stressful times
Also a contributer (should we invate Cuba…not, where we should go to dinner)
Directive leader
Where there is an opinionated leader..in cartoon
Isolation
Makes it in isolation..bad decision
Decision symptoms of groupthink
Incomplete survey of alternatives
No good information search
Failure to examine risks of preferred choice
Poor information search
Biased processing of information
Failure to make contingency plans
5 ways to avoid groupthink
Leader stays quiet
Individual discussions
Talking to each group member one on one
Devil’s advocate
Take on the role of arguing and pointing out the possible things that could go wrong..even if you don’t disagree..arguing for sake of arguing
Outside opinions
Alternate plan
Cant fail to concern risks and backup plan
group polarization
Leader stays quiet
Individual discussions
Talking to each group member one on one
Devil’s advocate
Take on the role of arguing and pointing out the possible things that could go wrong..even if you don’t disagree..arguing for sake of arguing
Outside opinions
Alternate plan
Cant fail to concern risks and backup plan
3 reasons for group polarization
Persuasive arguments
More people you talk to, more persuasive arguments hear
Social comparison
We all think we are a little better than average..so if risky, we are a little more riskier than average…start heigtening your attitude to feel better than group members
Self-presentation
How you want to look to others in group
if culture values risk, you will want to look tough in front of others