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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Attitudes
General evaluation of a person, place, thing, or idea
Important characteristics
Positive vs. negative
Dual attitude ambivalent
can feel both positively and negatively about same attitude object..cant capture this with bipolar scale
Ambivalent: bittersweet like graduation
Stuff in Rudman
Where else talk about this? With self esteem (how we feel about ourselves and how we evaluate at an implicit and explicit level)
Measure with different kinds of measurements (implicit and explicit?)
How else..how conscious you were of the attitudes..how positive or negative evaluated yourself (implicit is not necessarily aware or able to express your evaluation of yourself)

Where do explicit attitudes come from?
Firsthand experience
Direct teaching (we learn about these)
Where do implicit attitudes come from?
Early experiences (as contracted with recent)..automatic, nonconcious evaluations from early age..maybe people who smoke (explicitly positive evaluation but negative implicit)
Emotional reactions
Cultural bias
Might hold positive attitudes towards outgroup members (explicit) but if live in group with prejudices, might implicitly feel differently
Changeable?
Implicit more resistant (when culturally absorbed?), but…
Why? Might not even know have them…might absorb something and explicitly reject but implicitly hold..but can change these
Implicit attitude measurements
IAT
Common way to measure
Remember self-esteem examples?
Like liking things associated with name
explicit attitude measurements
Self-report
Issues
Social desirability
Judgment biases and errors
People don’t want to say they suck
Maybe wont want to report a prejudice attitude
Loss aversion framing example
Condoms have a 95% success rate. How effective do you believe condoms are?
88% agree

Condoms have a 5% failure rate. How effective do you believe condoms are?
42% agree
Spin framing example
Does the U.S. government spend too much money on assistance to the poor?
23% yes

Does the U.S. government spend too much money on welfare?
53% yes
The importance of order (industry example)
A. The Japanese government should be allowed to set limits on how much American industry can sell in Japan.

B. The U.S. government should be allowed to set limits on how much Japanese industry can sell in the U.S.

If Question A was asked first, few Americans agreed with it. If Question B was asked first, over 2/3 of Americans agreed with it.
Availability matters
A. What is the most important problem facing our country?
• Public schools
• Abortion
• Other (list anything you want)


B. What is the most important problem facing our country?
• Public schools
• Abortion
• Health care
• Drugs
• Violence
• Pollution
• Other (list anything you want)
Stuff about LaPiere study
LaPiere (1934)
Prejudiced attitude  prejudiced behavior?
Traveling with Chinese friends
99.7% did serve
90% said they “would not serve,” 10% undecided
Issues
Timing (attitude could have gotten worse)
Same person..not guaranteed
White man..he didn’t ask for behavior


Assume that if I know how you feel, that will predict how you act…we assume attitudes lead to behaviors..this includes social behaviors..they dont always though…LaPiere travels around US with Chinese friends..prejudiced attitudes predict the prejudiced behaviors..almost 100% serve friends…called all 251 places…huge gap between attitudes and behaviors
Stuff with predictions
How feel towards object
More specific and detailed a go..more specific to behavior want to predict..attitude predict behavior when similar as possible
Attitudes predict behaviors when..
High degree of correspondence between attitude measure and behavior
Consistent components/bases of attitudes
Attitude about single object can have affective and cognitive components
Diet Coke is affective positive relationships and cognitive is why don’t think should drink it
People have conflict, affect say yes and cognition says no..liking for Diet Coke is less predictive of how much actually drink it
Weak situation
If in strong situation, almost everyone acting same way..only in weak situations are people’s internal attitudes more likely to guide and predict behavior
Strong attitude
Acquired firsthand
More predictive…firsthand negative attitude towards lending somebody something
Accessible attitude
Strong + accessible often correlate
Also more likely to predict behavior
Some chronically accessible..more frequently thinking about them…strong and accessible correlate
Implicit attitudes better when (better at prediction)
Implicit attitudes better predict
Automatic behaviors
Low effort
Unintentional
Low time/motivation
To correct for automatic behaviors..if thinking about where to sit, in a rush, not sure if did bias, will predict how far away sit from confederate
Explicit attitudes better when (better at prediction)
Explicit attitudes better predict
Controlled behaviors
Time/motivation
Theory of planned behavior
It is not just attitudes that predict behavior..one of three things..the more specific the attitude is, and the more it relates to the behavior, more predictive…tough to get perfect correlation of attitudes and behavior

Subjective norm: how you feel other people feel about recycling

PBC: Do you have time to find recycling center, have car..stuff like that

Not just attitudes…what other people attitudes are, and control