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50 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Amygdala
walnut sized structure deep within brain. central in emotion and cognition.
basic emotions
emotions that are universal acrosss all cultures.
psychopathology
mental illness where emotions veer from normality
Steps of scientific method
1. Testable Hypothesis
2. Disconfirm or confirm
3. Replicate
anecdotal evidence
evidence that has been informally collected and reported
report bias
when some observations are more likely to be reported than others
file-drawer problem
when studies with encouraging results are often published or announced
dependent variable
the scientist wants to find out if this variable depends on some other factor.
independent variable
the variable whose effects the scientist wishes to examine.
interrater reliability
when scientists agree on the results of an experiment
experimental group
the group that is introduced to the experimental manipulation
control group
the group that does not experience the experimental manipulation but experiences all else.
observational studies
a study where the scientist observes key factors rather than manipulating them directly.
correlational studies
a study where the scientist seeks to observe the relationship between two variables. (heigh,age,level of depression, etc)
third variable problem
The problem that arises in determining things like does poverty cause schizophrenia or does schizophrenia cause poverty. Another variable must be looked at in order to determine the answer.
random assignment
a way to ensure that subjects come from different backgrounds
within-subject comparisons
comparing subjects behavior in one setting to the same subjects behavior in a different setting
case study
when investigators observe and then describe one individual in great detail.
self-report data
when a participant describes their own feelings,thoughts,behavior, etc.
Neurons
individual cells that act as the information proccessors of the nervous system.
reflex
when the outside energy is reflected back by the nervous system to the animal's muscles
lesion
when you destroy something in place
transecting
cutting the relevant pathways of the tissue and isolating it.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
strong magnetic pulses create temporary disruption in a small brain region directly under the scalp.
nueroimaging techniques
procedures that provide views of the brains anatomy.
neural tube
when the neural plate zips together from left to right and fuse lengthwise
hindbrain
the thickening nearest the tail of an embryo. Medulla, pons and cerebellum.
midbrain
thickening of an embryo between the forebrain and hindbrain. crucial in auditory and visual stimuli. Also,body temp and pain and sleepin/waking cycle.
forebrain
the thickening nearest the head of the embryo. Cortex, longitudal fissure, subcortical structures, thalamus,hypothalamus,basal ganglia,limbic system(amygdala and hippocampus)
central nervous system
combination of the spinal cord and brain
medulla
at the bottom of the hindbrain, directly above spinal cord. Critical for basic bilogical functions. (cardiovascular,respiratory,breathing, heartbeat,reflexes,balance)
pons
just above the medulla, regulates facial muscles,tongue,eye, and ear. Also regulates sleeping and dreaming.
cerrebelum
massive cauliflowerlike structure that hangs directly behind the pons and overlaps medulla. regulates balance, and data from muscles and learning new movements.
cortex
surface of forebrain.
longitudal fissure
deep front to back cleavage
subcoritcal structures
portions of the brain that lie under the cortex (thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia)
thalamus
relay station for nearly all sensory information goint to the cortex.
hypothalamus
involved in controlled behavior such as feeding, drinking, maintaining body temp, and sexual activity.
basal ganglia
next to the thalamus, regulate muscular contractions during movement, keeps out movements from being jerky. Parkinsons disease involved the degeneration of certain cells in the basal ganglia. Huntingtons also affects basal ganglia. Basal ganglia are involved in repetition also.
limbic system
amygdala and hippocampus, affects emtional and motivational activities and some aspects of learning and memory.
afferent nerves
transmit information from sense organs to brain and spinal cord
efferent nerves
transmit messages from central nervous system to the effectors, the muscles and glands that are the organs of action.
cranial nerves
12 pairs of nerves that enter directly through the hindbrain rather than the spinal cord. affect movements of head and neck and carry sensations from them (sight,smell, etc)also control life sustaining functions like digestion and excretion.
peripheral nervous system
combo of somatic division (skeletal musculature and sense organs) and autonomic division or ANS (set of spinal and cranial nerves that regulate and informa brain about the heart,lungs, blood vessels,digestive system, sex organs, etc.
pituitary gland
master gland, controls all other glands of body. communication with brain and body occurs via hormonal secretions.
convulusions
wrinkles in the cortex that seperate the lobes of the brain.
4 lobes of the brain
frontal, parietal lobes form the front and topmost parts of brain. Temperal lobes press up against frontal lobes. Occipital lobe is rear most lobe.
contralateral control
stimulating the left hemisphere leads to movements on the right side of the body and vice versa.
somatosensory
recieving area for skin senses
apraxias
serious disturbances in the initiation or organization of voluntary action.