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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is piagetian theory?
active child, kid constructs hypothesis, performs experiment, draws conclusions; motivated to learn; nature and nurture; discontinuous stages, continuous process
what is the piagetian process?
biological drive to make sense of the world; driven by adaptation, organization, equilibration
what is adaptation, assimilation, accomodation?
response to environment, integrate new info into existing schema, change schemes w/ new info
what is equilibration? (equilibrium/disequilibrium)
balances assimilation and accomodation; no discrepancy b/t experience and understanding, discrepancy understood - leads to better understanding
what is organization? what does kid do during this
rearrange existing schemes into new and complex structures
what are the properties of piagetian stages?
different stages are qualitatively different, broad applicability, brief transitional periods, invariant (same order), universal
what are the sensorimotor stages?
basic reflexes, primary circular reactions, secondary circular reactions, intentional behaviour (coordination of secondary, 1 yo), tertiary circular reactions, symbols (2 yo)
when do kids lack object permanence, make the a-not-b error, actively explore their world?
secondary circular, intentional behaviour, teritary circular
what are the properties of the preoperational stage?
representations but no operations, mental representation, egocentric, centration (focus on one feature), focus on static states
when can kids solve conservation problems?
concrete operational stage (7-12)
describe concrete operational
less egocentric, decentration, still stimulus bound (7-11)
describe formal operations
think abstractly, reason hypothetically, use scientific reasoning, ponder deep questions (11-16)
problems w/ piaget's theory
kids aren't that consistent, underestimated infants, underestimated environmental influence, accomodation/assimilation/equilibrium not well spelled out, not all culture reaches formal operations
what are properties of sociocultural theory?
importance of cultural learning, other people more important, cultural tools (symbol, map, language), humans only
4 key parts of vygotsky's theory
intersubjectivity - mutual understanding of intentions (turn taking, joint attention, social referencing)
scaffolding - frameworks to support child's thinking (goal clarification, withdrawal of support)
zone of proximal development - teach a bit beyond them, not too much
move from private to inner speech
how is the child's learning like a computational system?
Cognitive development occurs through the “increasingly effective execution of basic processes, expanding memory capacities, and acquisition of new strategies and knowledge”
what are the properties of information processing theories?
continuous change, active problem-solvers, basic learning/memory expanded/perfected, association, recognition, generalization, encoding features
important aspects of info-processing
basic processing capacity, efficiency, encoding of info, cognitive inhibition, strategy execution, knowledge, metacognition
what is executive function?
the processes involved in regulating attention and in determining what to do w/ info just gathered or retrieved from long-term memory
what is core knowledge of physics?
infants know that objects occupy space, look longer at impossible event
what are concepts? different theororists take on this?
general ideas or understandings that can be used to group together objects, events, qualities, or abstractions that are similar
core knowledge - enter w/ ability to form certain concepts
piaget - physical interaction w/ world
info-processing - form association
sociocultural - scaffold concepts
what is essentialism in the innate biology module?
kids have an understanding that animals inherit an essence, a “dogness”
what is theory of mind?
Theory of Mind-the idea that other people can have thoughts and beliefs different from one’s own and that those differing beliefs will guide their actions (2-5 yo)
what is are some false belief tasks
box of chalk that says crayons; moving the object when person leaves room
what are some memory strategies
rehearsal, organization, elaboration, chunking
what was the deal w/ chess player's memory?
good general memory or experience in one field? (normal memory, good at memory of chess pieces on a board)
what are scripts?
when asked to retell a story you will say that a person paid the bill if you weren’t told (kids don’t remember)
what is fuzzy trace theory?
verbatim or gist (kids = verbatim)
what factors affect eyewitness memory/testimony?
iq, incentive, stress, emotional support, working memory and inhibition, theory of mind, source monitoring, knowledge
what is phonological decoding/phonemic awareness, what does it predict?
ability to say what the first sound in cat is, which doesn’t rhyme; words made up of smaller units; future reading ability
what are the developmental stages in reading?
prereading (0-kindergarten), reading/decoding (grade 1-2), fluency (2-3), reading for new learning (4-8), mulitple viewpoints (hs), construction/reconstruction (uni on)
what are low level and high level goals in writing?
much harder: low - form letters, spelling, punctiuation; high - understandable, coherent, enough info
properties of numeracy
0-5m have up to 3 hardwired (subitizing - no counting, mental images), most 3 yos can count to 10, understand number at 5, ratio system - can tell difference b/t 4 and 8 but not 4 and 6
what are the rules kids count by?
one to one- each item gets a unique label
stable-order - number order the same each time you count
cardinal - last # label given = # in total
abstraction - an count anything
order-irrelevant - doesn't matter what order, you end up w/ same amount
what is intelligence
an individual’s ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, and to overcome obstacles through mental effort
what is crystallized and fluid intelligence
crystallized - continues to increase (facts and info that you know), fluid peaks (20-25) (how you learn things, iq)
what is the gardner theory of multiple intelligences?
field of education (no good research); everyone has different profile - need to encourage, biologically based and determined, based on adults w/ neurological insults
what is steinberg's triarchic theory
analytic intelligence (iq test), creative intelligence (new ways to solve problems), practical (succeed in spite of hardship, adapting)
what are the differences in intelligence b/t boys and girls
iq range is greater for males, boys better at math and science, girls = reading and writing; men = better at spacial thinking? women better at language?
what are the cut offs for giftedness and intellectual disability
130 or 145; 70 -10 (mild, moderate, severe, profound; savants)
what are the principles of successful early intervention
timing, intensity, direct provision from program to child, breadth (broad spectrum), recognize individual differences, environmental maintenance, culturally appropriate
creative people are...
Open to new ideas
Inherently curious
Motivated by intrinsic reward
Don’t worry about what others think; produce original, appropriate, and valuable ideas and/or solutions to problems; see connections; develop a simple idea in different ways