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27 Cards in this Set

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Complicated sentences can be COMPREHENSIBLE!
Daddy, what did you bring that book that I don't want to be read to out of up for?
(You can understand this)
Simple sentences can be INCOMPREHENSIBLE!
The horse raced past fell the past the barn fell. (This is difficult to understand)
Language Structure
Sentence > Phrase > Word > Morpheme > Phoneme
What is a PHONEME?
A phoneme is the smallest unit of speech sound.

There are about 40 phonemes in English.

There are different phonemes for different languages.

There are rules of order when it comes to phonemes: FPIBS are not OK. PRITOS are okay.
What is a MORPHEME?
Morphemes are the smallest units that signal meaning.

They are usually prefixes, suffixes, and roots (-ed, -s, syn-).

Morphemes can be entire words.

50-80,000 Morphemes

Morphemes cannot stand alone.

They can be combined.
What are WORDS?
Combinations of one or more morphemes.

3 morphemes: Strange-Er-S -- This equates to 1 word.
What is a PHRASE?
A Phrase is an organized grouping of words.
What is SYNTAX?
Syntax are rules that determine word order.
Words alone are not enough to unambiguously convey meaning.
For example..

(The French bottle)(smells)
(The French)(bottle)(smells)

Different meanings for different phrase structures.

Phonological inflection cues that distinguish these are subtle.
Meaning is related to concepts and categories (LTM).
Words represent or symbolize concepts.
What are the meanings of sentences?
Words must be grouped into phrases.

Meaning is assigned through the relationship between words.
Who is Noam Chomsky?
He set the stage for the contemporary study of language.

He studied how words translated into meaning.

He went beyond Phrase Structure Descriptions.
What is PHRASE STRUCTURE?
Sentence
^
Noun Phrase and Verb Phrase
^Article/Noun ^Verb/Noun Phrase

Eventually this breaks up..

The Boy Hit The Ball
What are the problems with Phrase Structure?
The ambiguities remain..

1. 1 phrase can mean different things.

2. Different phrases can mean the same thing.

Ex. The boy hit the ball. The ball was hit by the boy.
What is Surface Structure?
The phrase structure of the current utterance.
What is DEEP STRUCTURE?
A canonical phrase structure that has the same meaning as the surface structure.

Deep structure breaks down Surface structure through attitudes and propositions.
What is TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR?
Rules that transform a deep phrase structure into surface phrases structure with the same meaning.
What is PARAPHRASING?
Two surface structure have a deep structure that conveys the same meaning.

For example, The boy was hit by the ball.

The ball was hit by the boy.

THESE ARE THE SAME!
What is AMBIGUITY?
Ambiguity results when the same wording corresponds to more than one meaning.
What is LEXICAL AMBIGUITY?
It occurs when a word has two different meanings.

F. E.
He was bothered by the cold.
(cold like sickness? cold like weather?)
What is SYNTACTIC AMBIGUITY?
Words can be grouped together into more than one phrase structure.

They are (cooking apples)
They (are cooking) apples
What is a LEXICON?
It is a mental dictionary.
What does CONTEXT have its EFFECT?
1. You get all the word meanings from your lexicon.

2. Context allows you to get the correct word meaning from the lexicon.
Does SUBJECT WORD ORDER matter?
This is the same as REVERSIBLE vs. NONREVERSIBLE.

The cat chases the dog
(is easier to comprehend than)
The dog was chased by the cat
What is Broca's Aphasia?
Difficulty with PRODUCTION.

There is slow.. halting speech.

There are no fuction words (be, of, the)

Comprehension is largely intact.
What is Wernicke's Aphasia?
Difficulty with comprehension.

Fluent speech, that makes no sense.

Usually, there are made-up words and word substitutions.
How does a word travel through the brain?
1. Auditory Cortex

2. Wernicke's Area

3. Broca's Area

4. Motor Cortex