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45 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
predictor and criterion variables

the variables used to predict the criterion variable (eg. SAT scores are used to predict college grades)


multiple regression

an analysis (multivariate) that includes a criterion variable and 2 or more predictor variables Y = a + b1x1 + b2x2 + bnxn


bivariate approach and multivariate approach

investigates the relationship between any 3 or more than 2 variables


criterion validity

the ability of a test to predict some future event


third variable problem and partial correlation

the problem of drawing casual conclusion in correlational research  uncontrolled factors; the statistical procedure for evaluating the effects


coefficient of determination (r^2)

for two correlated factors, the proportion of variance in one factor that can be attributed to the second factor, found by squaring r


Pearson's r

measures the size of a correlation between two variables, ranges from +1.00 to 1.00; if r=0, no relationship


Type 2 Error

failing to reject the null when it is wrong


Type 1 Error

rejecting the null when it is true


alpha level

the probability of making a Type 1 Error; the significance level


pvalue

is the probability that your sample could have been drawn from the population being tested given the assumption that the null hypothesis is true. A pvalue of .05, for example, indicates that you would have only a 5% chance of drawing the sample being tested if the null hypothesis was actually true.


variance

the number calculated during the standard deviation just prior to taking the square root


standard deviation

a set of sample scores that measures the average amount by which the scores in the sample deviate from the mean


outliers

far moved from other scores


range

difference between high and low scores


inferential statistics

allows you to draw conclusions about your data that can be applied to the broader population


descriptive statistics

summarizes the data collected from the sample of participants in your study


ordinal scale

numbers stand for relative standing or ranking


ratio scale

numbers refer to quantities and intervals are assumed to be of equal size (NO zero)


interval scale

numbers refer to quantities, intervals are of equal scale (YES zero)


nominal scale

numbers have no quantitative value, serve to identify categories


face validity

valid to those who take it


valid

if it measures what it is designed to measure


reliable

results are repeatable when the behaviors are remeasured


parsimonious

the minimum number of constructs and assumptions in order to explain and predict some phenomenon adequately


falsification

emphasizes putting theories to the test by trying to disprove or falsify them


productivity

the amount of research that is generated to test a theory


induction

specific events to general (little to big)


deduction

theory to data (big to little)


construct

a hypothetical factor that is not observed directly; its existence is inferred from certain behaviors


empirical questions

a questions that can be answered by making objective observations


operational definitions

a definition of a concept or variable in terms of precisely describes operations, measures or procedures


quantitative research

numbers (mathematical) research


qualitative

reasons of behavior


field research

situations encountered in daily living (often applied)


lab research

inside or outside the controlled environment of a lab (often basic)


applied research

direct and immediate relevance to the solution of a realworld problem


basic research

describing, predicting, explaining fundamental principles of behavior and mental processes


anecdotal evidence

specific instances that seem to provide evidence  but cannot be investigated (ex. phrenology)


pseudoscience

appears to be scientific, but is in fact false


theory

set of statements that summarize what is known about some phenomena and propose working explinations


falsification

a theory that must be precise enough so that it can be disproven


objectivity

when observations can be verified by more than one observer


introspection

observing internally; into "onesself"


empiricism

the process of learning things through direct observation or experinence
