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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
predictor and criterion variables
the variables used to predict the criterion variable (eg. SAT scores are used to predict college grades)
multiple regression
an analysis (multivariate) that includes a criterion variable and 2 or more predictor variables Y = a + b1x1 + b2x2 + bnxn
bivariate approach and multivariate approach
investigates the relationship between any 3 or more than 2 variables
criterion validity
the ability of a test to predict some future event
third variable problem and partial correlation
the problem of drawing casual conclusion in correlational research - uncontrolled factors; the statistical procedure for evaluating the effects
coefficient of determination (r^2)
for two correlated factors, the proportion of variance in one factor that can be attributed to the second factor, found by squaring r
Pearson's r
measures the size of a correlation between two variables, ranges from +1.00 to -1.00; if r=0, no relationship
Type 2 Error
failing to reject the null when it is wrong
Type 1 Error
rejecting the null when it is true
alpha level
the probability of making a Type 1 Error; the significance level
is the probability that your sample could have been drawn from the population being tested given the assumption that the null hypothesis is true. A p-value of .05, for example, indicates that you would have only a 5% chance of drawing the sample being tested if the null hypothesis was actually true.
the number calculated during the standard deviation just prior to taking the square root
standard deviation
a set of sample scores that measures the average amount by which the scores in the sample deviate from the mean
far moved from other scores
difference between high and low scores
inferential statistics
allows you to draw conclusions about your data that can be applied to the broader population
descriptive statistics
summarizes the data collected from the sample of participants in your study
ordinal scale
numbers stand for relative standing or ranking
ratio scale
numbers refer to quantities and intervals are assumed to be of equal size (NO zero)
interval scale
numbers refer to quantities, intervals are of equal scale (YES zero)
nominal scale
numbers have no quantitative value, serve to identify categories
face validity
valid to those who take it
if it measures what it is designed to measure
results are repeatable when the behaviors are remeasured
the minimum number of constructs and assumptions in order to explain and predict some phenomenon adequately
emphasizes putting theories to the test by trying to disprove or falsify them
the amount of research that is generated to test a theory
specific events to general (little to big)
theory to data (big to little)
a hypothetical factor that is not observed directly; its existence is inferred from certain behaviors
empirical questions
a questions that can be answered by making objective observations
operational definitions
a definition of a concept or variable in terms of precisely describes operations, measures or procedures
quantitative research
numbers (mathematical) research
reasons of behavior
field research
situations encountered in daily living (often applied)
lab research
inside or outside the controlled environment of a lab (often basic)
applied research
direct and immediate relevance to the solution of a real-world problem
basic research
describing, predicting, explaining fundamental principles of behavior and mental processes
anecdotal evidence
specific instances that seem to provide evidence - but cannot be investigated (ex. phrenology)
appears to be scientific, but is in fact false
set of statements that summarize what is known about some phenomena and propose working explinations
a theory that must be precise enough so that it can be disproven
when observations can be verified by more than one observer
observing internally; into "ones-self"
the process of learning things through direct observation or experinence