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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Definition of Psychology
Study of mental processes and behavoirs
What do physiological psycholgists study?
The biological basis of behavoir
What are the 5 enduring issues
What is a Theory?
A set of principles that explain and predict a set of facts
What is a hypothesis?
An educated guess that tries to predict an outcome
What is a dependent variable?
Factor that is observed or measured
What was Wundt's research interest?
How physiology and psychology relate to each other
What are the central themes of Functionalism?
Purpose of behavoir
Must be observable, measurable
What is survey research?
Questionnaire or interview designed to investigate opinions, behavoires of a target group.
What is correlational method?
Allows to predict relationships or associations between variables.
What is reinforcement?
The ooccurance of a stimulus or event following a response that increases the likelihood that response will be repeated.
What are the methods that behavoirist use to overcome fear?
Systematic desensitization, deep muscle relaxation
What is the definition of learning?
A process that produces a relatively enduring change in behavoir.
What is the optimal spacing of the US and CS
Immediately before the US.
What is conditioned taste aversion?
The dislike for and avoidance of a food that develops after an organism becomes ill from eating the food.
What is shaping?
What is positive reinforcement?
Situation in which a reponse is followed by the addition of a reinforceable stimulus, increasing the likelihood that the response will be repeated.
What is negative reinforcement?
Situation in which a respone results in the removal, avoidance or escape from aversive stimulus, incresing the likelihood that the response will be repeated.
What is attention?
Selection of info we give meaning to.
What are sensory registers?
What is STM?
Short Term Memory
What is the capacity of LTM
What is episodic memory?
LTM of speific events or episodes - includes the time and place.
What is procedural memory?
LTM of how to perform a task.
What factors contribute to interference?
Retroactive and proactive interference.
What is a flashbulb memory?
A memory that captures specific images or details surrounding a significant, rare or vivid event.
What are mental images?
A mental representatio of an object or event.
What is a concept?
A mental category of objects or ideas based on the properties they share.
most typical instance of a particular concept.
What are representative heuristics?
Problem solving strategy that involves the following of a general rule to reduce the number of possible solutions.
What is problem solving?
Refers to thinking an behavoir directed toward attaining a goal that is not readily available.
What is trial and error?
Problem solving strategy that involves attempting different solutions and eliminating those that do not work.
What is an algorithm?
A problem solving strategy that involves following a specific rule, procedure or method that produces the correct solution.
What is insight?
The sudden realization of how a problem can be solved.
What is random assignment in experiments?
The assigning of participants in such a way as that all participants have an equal chance to be assigned to any of hte conditions or groups in the study.
What factors are important in surveys?
Question order, wording, response options.
Can you make causal attributions with correlational research?
What is systematic desensitization based on?
Hierarchy of fear.
What is learned helplessness?
When exposure to insescapable and uncontrolable aversive events produce passive behavoir.
What is a fixed interval schedule?
Period of time that must occur before a reward.
What is spontaneous recovery?
The reappearence of a previously extinguished condtioned response after a period of time w/out expsure to the cs.
What is chunking?
The breakdown and grouping of information to facilitate its loading in STM.
What is the recency effect?
Tendency to recall the final items in a list.
What is a schema?
An organized cluster of information about a particular topic.
What is implicit memory?
Information or knowledge that affects behavoir or task performance but cannot be consiously recollected.
What is Test reliability?
The ability for a test to produce consistent results what administed under similar conditions.
What is Functional fixedness?
The tendency to view objects as functioning in their usual or customary way.
What is thinking?
The manipulation of mental representations of info to draw inferences and conclusions.
What are the findisns for identical twins intelligence when they are reared apart
Similar but not as close as when raised together.
What are Garner's views on intelligence?
Sees intelligence as a narrower concept then a globalize score.
What are the 3 types of intelligence according to Sternberg?
Analytical - mental abilities
Creative - ability to adjust to new situations
Practical - capitalize on strengths and minmize weaknesses.