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65 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Who conducted the first psychology experiment? When? What did he study
Wilhelm Wundt established the 1st psychology laboratory and conducted the first psychology experiment in December 1879. He was seeking to measure "atoms of the mind" - the fastest and simplest mental processes.
What is STRUCTURALISM? Who introduced this school of thought?
an early school of psychology that used introspection (self-reflection/looking inward) to explore the structural elements of the human mind introduced by Edward Bradford TITCHENER in 1892.
What is INTROSPECTION? What were some of the problems when using introspection?
_____ is a self-reflective (looking inward) method introduced by Titchener that aimed to discover the structural elements of the mind by training people to report elements of their experiences.

It proved to be unreliable; results varied from person to person and experience to experience; required smart verbal people; recollection's frequently erred.
What is FUNCTIONALISM? Who advocated this school of thought?
a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish introduced by William JAMES. pg 3
What is behaviorism?
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).
Humanistic psychology?
historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth.
Cognitive neuroscience?
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language).
applied research
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems; one of the 3 main subfields of psychology; is sometimes conducted by industrial/organizational psychologist.
basic research
-pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base;

-one of the 3 main subfields of psychology;

-reasearch is performed by biological, developmental, cognitive, personality and social psychologists
behavior genetics perspective
perspective in psychology that examines how much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences
behavioral perspective
perspective in psychology whose focus in on how we learn observable responses
behaviorism
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).
biopsychosocial approach
an integrated approach (viewpoint) that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis and offers a more complete picture of any given behavior or mental process
clinical psychology
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.
cognitive neuroscience
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language).
cognitive perspective
perspective in psychology that focuses on how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information
counseling psychology
a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being.
evolutionary perspective
perspective in psychology whose focus is on how natural selection of traits promoted the survival of genes
functionalism
a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish.
humanistic psychology
historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth.
levels of analysis
the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon.
natural selection
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
nature-nurture issue
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture
neuroscience perspective
perspective in psychology that focuses on how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences
psychiatry
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy.
psychodynamic perspective
perspective in psychology that emphasizes how behavior springs from unconscious desires
psychology
the science of behavior and mental processes.
SQ3R
a study method incorporating five steps: Survey, Question, Read, Rehearse, Review
social-cultural perspective
perspective in psychology that focuses on how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures
structuralism
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind.
case study
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
control group
in an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
correlation
a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
correlation coefficient
a statistical index or measure of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1);

helps us figure how closely two things vary together, and thus how well either one predicts the other.
correlational method
research method used to detect naturally occurring relationships; to assess how well one variable predicts another

-Conducted by computing statistical association, sometimes among survey responses;
-nothing is manipulated;
-it does not specify cause and effect.
critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
culture
1. the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions, shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
dependent variable
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable. (AKA: control group)
descriptive method
research method used to observe and record behavior.

- conducted by using case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation

-nothing is manipulated

-has no control of variables; single cases may be misleading
double-blind procedure
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.
experiment
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors
experimental group
in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment; ...(uses the independent variable)
experimental method
a research method used to determine cause and effect

-conducted by manipulating (the independent variables) one or more factors; and uses random assignment

- Weaknesses: sometimes not feasible; results may generalize to other contexts; not ethical to manipulate certain variables.
hindsight bias
1. the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon.)
hypothesis
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
illusory correlation
the perception of a relationship where none exists
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied (uses the experimental group)
mean
the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores
median
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it
mode
the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution
range
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
normal curve (normal distribution)
a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean (68 percent fall within one standard deviation of it) and fewer and fewer near the extremes
operational definition
a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures
placebo effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent
population
all the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn. (Note: Except for national studies, this does not refer to a country's whole population.
random assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
random sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
range
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
replication
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
scatterplots
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation).
standard deviation
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
statistical significance
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
survey
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group
theory
1. EXPLAINS- through a set of principles that
2. ORGANIZES OBSERVATIONS and
3. PREDICTS behaviors or events