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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Social Psychology
A broad field whose goals are to understand and explain how thoughts, feelings, perceptions, and behaviors are influenced by the presence of, or interaction with, others.
Person Perception
The process by which we form impressions of and make judgments about the traits and characteristics of others.
A belief about a gropu that is exaggerated, usually negative
Judging the group based on a stereotype (attitude)
Action taken based on prejudice and stereotypes
Things we point to as the cause of events, other people's behaviors, and our own behaviors.
Fritz Heider
Responsible for the creation of the attribution theory: the theory that sonsumer assumptions about a product or situation are derived from the consumer's experience, personality, or attitudes.
Internal (dispositional) Attributions
Explanations of behavior based on internal characteristics or dispositions of the person performing the behavior.
External (situational) Attributions
Explanations of behavior based on the external circumstances or situations.
Covariation Model (Harold Kelley)
Should look for factors present when the behavior occurs and factors that are absent do not occur. How do we decide which one?
Determining whether other people engage in the same behavior in the same situations.
LOW: behavior does not stay the same over time
HIGH: behavior stays the same over time
Whether someone engages in the behavior every time they are in that situation
LOW: behavior stays the same when situation changes
HIGH: behavior changes when situation changes
How different someone acts in one situation compared to another
LOW: most people wouldn't behave like this in this situation
HIGH: most people would behave this way in this situation
Fundamental Attribution Error
When we make decisions we tend to pay too much attention to internal and neglect external attributions
Actor-Observer Effect
When we are behaving we tend to attribute our behaviors to the situation, but when judging somoene else we judge internally
Self Serving Bias
When something good happens its all about internal, but when something bad happens its all external
Any belief or opinion that includes an evaluation of an object, person, or event along a continuum from positive to negative and that predisposes us to act in a certain way towards that person, object, or event
Cognitive Component of Attitudes
Beliefs that can strongly affect your opinion
Affective Component of Attitudes
Feelings about the person, object, or event that can strongly affect your opinion
Behavioral Component of Attitudes
Actual action taken on the person, object, or event based on someone's attitude toward it
Predisposing Function of Attitudes
A belief that guides us to the attitude
Interpreting Function of Attitudes
Provide convenient guidelines for interpreting objects and events and deciding whether to approach or ignore them
Evaluative Function of Attitudes
Help us stand up for what we believe in. Give us strength.
Cognitive Dissonance
A state of unpleasant psychological tension that motivates us to reduce our cognitive inconsistencies by making beliefs more consistent with one another
Leon Festinger
Created the theory of cognitive dissonance
Three Elements of persuasion:
Source of the Message: people's representative; well groomed; more likely to believe someone who is credible, honest, and who looks like us.
Content of the Message: Some messages are better one-sided, but others are better two-sided. If facts are complicated, written messages work better; fear tends to bread more fear.
Characteristics of the Audience: Have to know your audience; have to know who is watching TV when.
Central Route To Persuasion
Audience is looking for facts, logic, data, analysis. Audience must be interested in topic and provide a strong argument. Credibility, strong speaking, and honestly are important
Periperal Route To Persuasion
Audience is interested in values and emotion. Speaker must demonstrate emotion and personality
Any behavior that you perform because of group pressure even though that pressure might not involve direct request
Asch's Line Study
Six people sit at a round table. The group is shown a straight line and then instructed to look at three more lines, all different in lengths. One of which is the same as the first one. Four of the people at the table are the experimenter's accomplices. When the experimener asks which line matches the original, the accomplices answer first which the wrong answer. The non-accomplices then answer the question. 75% conformed and answered with the incorrect answer.
Just going along with the group; didn't really believe it; not changing private beliefs
Performing a behavior because someone of power told you to
Milgram's Obedience Study
There is a teacher and a learner. The learner is the experimenter's accomplice. The learner is to study a list of phrases and memorize them. The teacher then quizzes the learner on the phrases. For each wrong answer, the teacher will shock the learner at an increase of 10 volts each time. The learner was never actually shocked, but the teacher didn't know that. There was a recording of screams for each voltage so that it would seem more real for the teacher. Once the learner began to beg for the shocking to stop the experimenter would insist that the teacher continued on and finishing the experiment. 65% of the teachers shocked the learner until unresponsive.
Prosocial Behavior
Any behavior that benfits others or has positive social consequences
When we do something (help) with no reward, often at a risk to ourselves.
Collections of two or more people who interact, share some common idea, goal, or purpose, and influence how their members think and behave
Group Cohesion
Group togetherness: how much group members perceive that they share common attributes
Group Norms
Formal or informal rules about how group members should behave - very powerful influences (good or bad)
Stanford Prison Experiment
Several college boys volunteer for a psychological experiment. During this experiment, some were guards and some were inmates. The guards acted terrible toward the inmates and the experiment had to be shit down early
Phil Zimbardo
Responsible for the Stanford Prison Experiment
A large group of epople, most of whom are strangers and unaquainted; has powerful effects on those in the crowd
Social Facilitation
An increase in performance in the presence of a crowd
Social Inhibition
A decrease in performance in the presence of a crowd
The tendency for subjects to behave irrationally or to perform antisocial behvaiors when there is less chance of being personally identified. BAD THING!
Bystander Effect
75% go to someone's aid when they are alone; 50% go when in the presence of others
Group Polarization
When a group discussion reinforces the majority's point of view and shifts that view to a more extreme position
Group Think
When a group sticks together, plays it safe, and critical thinking goes our the window. STOPS CREATIVE THINKING! BAD THING!
Interpersonal Attraction
The attraction between people which leads to friendships and romantic relationships
Aggressive Behavior
Aggressive behavior is reactionary and impulsive behavior that often results in breaking household rules or the law; aggressive behavior is violent and unpredictable
A technique used to relieve tension and anxiety by bringing repressed feelings and fears to consciousness