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134 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
sensation
stimulation of the sense organs
perception
selection, organization and intrepretation of sensory input
light
form of electromagnetic radiation that travels moving, naturally enough at the speed of light
amplitude
height of light
wavelength
the distance between the peaks
purity
how varied a mix is
lens
transparent eye structure that focuses the light rays falling on the retina
cornea
transparent window at the front of eye
nearsightness
close objects seen clear, distant blurry (cornea/lens bends light too much)
farsightness
close objects blurry, distant seen clear (eyeball to short)
pupil
opening in the center of the iris, regulates amoung of light passing into rear chamber of the eye
retina
neural tissue lining the inside back surface of the eye, absorbs light and PROCESSES
optic disk
hole in the retina, known as blind spot, axons that run from the retina to the brain converge at a single point
cones
specialized visual receptors that play a key role in daylight/color vision
fovea
tiny spot in the center of the retina, only cones, visual acuity is greatest at this spot called anacula
rods
specialized visual receptors that play a key role in night vision and peripheral vision
optic nerve
collection of axons that connect the eye with the brain
receptive field
retinal area that when stimulated, affects the firing of that cell
at the optic chasm..
axons from the inside half of each eye cross over and then project to the opposite half of the brain... (divider)
subtractive color mixing
removing some wavelengths of light, leaving less light than was originally there
additive color mixing
superimposing lights, putting more light in the mixture than exists in any one light by itself
trichromatic color theory
stated by thomas young, holds that human eyes has 3 types of receptos with differing sensitivity to different light wavelenghts
opponent process theory of color vision
accounts for complementary and after image processes, holds color perception depends on receptors that make antagonistic respones to 3 pairs of colors...
afterimage
visual image that persists after the stimulus is removed
complementary colors
pairs of colors that produce gray tones when mixed together
reconciling theories
both are to be accounted for
wavelength short, medium and long
blue, green and red (repectively)
Gestalt Principles
closure, proximity, similiarity, simplicity, continuity
phi phenomenom
illusion of movement created by presenting visual stimuli in rapid succession
binocular depth
cues are clues about distance based ont he difering views of the two eyes
retinal disparity
in reference to binocular depth cues, fact that objects w/25 feet project images diff. locations on right and left retinas, so right and left eyes see views differently
pictorial depth cues
cues about distance that can be given in a flat picture
monocular cues
clues about distance based on the image in either eye along
sounds of this measure can be deafening
120 decibels
humans can hear...
from 2 to 20,000 HZ !
cochlea
fluid filled coiled tunnel that contains the receptors for hearing...
basilar membrane
runs the length of the spir. cochlea, holds the auditory receptors called hair cells
theories of pitch
place and frequency
place theory
perception of pitch corresponds to the vibration of different portions or places, along the basilar membrane
frequency
holds that perception of pitch corresponds to the rate, or frequencey at which the entire basilar membrane vibrates
taste buds
we have 4-6, sweet sour fat and bitter, salty?
sensory adaptation
gradual decline in sensitivity to prolonged stimulation
olfactory system
sensory system for smell
EEG
monitoring device of electrical activity in brain over time by electrodes attatched to scalp
consciousness
awareness of internal and external stimuli
biological rhythms
periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning
circadian rhythms
24 hour biological cycles found in humans & organisms
jet lag
getting out of circulation with your circadian rhythms
EMG
records muscular activity and tension
EOG
records eye movements
EKG
records contractions of the heart
slow wave sleep
stages 3-4
REM
deep stage of sleep with REM, high freq brain wave and dreaming, s5
non REM
stages 1-4, no REM, little dreams, varied EEG activity
insomnia
chronic problems getting adeq. sleep (diff. falling asleep, remaining asleep, early morning awakening)
narcolepsy
disease marked by sudden and irrestibile onsets of sleep during normal waking periods
sleep apnea
frequent, reflexive gasping for air, awakens a person and disrupts sleep
somnambulism/speech walking
occurs when a person arises and wanders about while remaining asleep
hypnosis
systematic procedure produces heightened state of suggestibility
psychoactive drugs
chemical substances modify mental, emotional or behavior functioning
narcotics/opiates
pain relieving drugs from opium
sedatives
sleep inducing drugs that tned to decrease central nervous system activation and behavioral activity
stimulants
drugs that tend to increase CNS activation and behavioral activity
hallucinogens
diverse group of powerful effecting drugs (mental and emotional) marked by distortions in sensory and perceptual experience
#1 abused drug
alcohol
tolerance
prog. decrease in a person's responsiveness to a drug as a result of cont. use
types of dependence
physical and physiological
physical dep.
person must continue with drug to avoid withdrawal illness
psychological dep.
person must continue with drug to satisfy intense mental and emotional craving
learning
relatively DURABLE change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience
classical conditioning
type of learning where stimulus acquires capacity to evoke a response orginally evoked by another stimulus
unconditioned stimulus
stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning
unconditioned response
unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning
conditioned stimulus
previously NEUTRAL stimulus that has through conditioning acquired the capacity to evoke a conditional response
conditioned response
learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning
acquistion
beginning/initial stage of learning
extinction
gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency
spontaneous recovery
reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus
stimulus generalization
when organism has learned a response to a stimulus, responds in same way to new stimuli as the original stimulus
stimulus discrimination
occurs when organism has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus
operant conditioning
form of learning where voluntary responses came to be controlled by their consequence
reinforcement
occurs when an event following a response increases and organism's tendency to make that response
shaping
reinforcment of closer and closer approximations of a desired response
resistance (to extinction)
occurs when an organism continues to meake a response after delivery of the reinforcer, it has been terminated
fixed ratio
lower resis. to extinction, short pause after reinforcement, rapid responding
variable ratio
higher resistance to extinction, high, steady rate without pauses
positive reinforcement
response is strengthened by reward stimulus
negative reinforcement
response is strengthened because it's followe by removal of an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus
punishment
occurs when an event folowing a response weakens the tendency to make that response
conditioned taste aversion
completely discouraged from type of food
instinctive drift
occurs when anima's innate response tendencies interfere with conditioning processes
observational learning
organism respons to influence by the observations of others, who are called models
4 key processes of observational learning
1. attention, 2. retention 3. reproduction 4. motivation
encoding
involves forming a memory code
storage
maintaining encoded info in memory over time
retrieval
involves recovering information from memory stores
attention
involves focusing awareness on a narrow range of stimuli or events
ESR
encoding, storage and retrieval
elaboration
linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding
levels of processing
deeper levels of processing result in longer lasting memory codes
dual coding theory
memory is enhan. by semantic and visual codes
sensory memory
preserves info in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second
short term memory
limited capacity can maintain unrehearsed info for 20 to 30 seconds
rehearsal
process of rep. verbalizing or thinking about information
chunk
group of familiar stimtul i
long term memory
unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time
flashbulb memories
unusually vivid and detailed recollectoins of momentous events
schema
organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from exp. with object/event
semantic network
nodes representing concepts joined together by pathways linking related concepts
misinformation effect
occurs when participant's recall of an event they witnessed is altered by introducing misleaing postevent information
source monitoring
process of making inferences about the origins of memories
recall measure
of ret. requires participants to reproduce info on their own without any cues
recognition measure
of ret. requires participants to select previously learned info. from an array of options
relearning measure
requires a participant to memorize info a second time to determine how much time or effort is saved by having it learned before
interference
theory proposes that people forget info because of competition from other material
retroactive
interference occurs when new info impairs the retention of previously learned information
proactive interference
occurs when previously learned info interferes with the retention of new information
repression
refers to keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buries in the unconscious
retrograde amnesia
a person loses memories for events that occured prior to the injurty
anterograde amnesia
a person loes memories for events that occur after the injury
hippocampus
essential role in memory
declaratory
system handles factual information
procedural memory
houses memory for actions, skills and operations
problem solving
active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goal that is not readily attainable
insight
sudden discover of correct solution folowing incorrect attempts based on trial and error
functional fixedness
tendency to percieve an item only in terms of its common use
mental set
exists when people persist in using problem solving strategies in the past
trial and error
involves trying possible solutions sequentially and discarding those that are in error until one works
heuristic
guiding principle or rule of thumb used in solving problems or making decisions
decision
evaluating alternatives and making choices among them
risky decision making
involves making choices under conditions of uncertainty
availability heuristic
basing the est. prob. of an event on the ease with which relevant instances come to mind
representativeness heuristic
involves basing the est. prob. of an event on how similiar it is to the typical prototype of that event
gambler's fallacy
beliefs that the odds of a chance event increase if the event hasn't occured recently