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32 Cards in this Set

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positive symptoms
behavioral excesses:
hallucinations and delusions = paranoia
types of hallucinations
audible thoughts, voices commenting, voices arguing
hallucinations = increased levels
of activity in broca's area = wont be able to articulate thoughts
Negative symptoms
behavioral deficits
avolition
lack of drive to do stuff
alogia
poverty of speech, don't say much
anhedonia
inability to experience pleasure
flat affect
exhibits little affect in face
asociality
inability to keep close relationships
disorganized symptoms
disorganized speech - incoherenece, derailment/loose associations
disorganized behavior - wearing heavy clothing in hot weather
catatonia
motor abnormalities - flailing/excited limbs
catatonic immobility
maintain unusual posture for long period of time
waxy flexibility
can be manipulated by and posed by another person
inappropriate affect
laugh at funeral
DSM IV TR - SCHIZOPHRENIA
2 or more of the symptoms for more than 1 month

delusions
hallucinations
disorganized speech/behavior/catatonic
negative symptoms
declining social fxning
signs of disturbance for at least 6 months
Subtypes
disorganized
catatonic
paranoid
undifferentiated - meet crit for schizo but not subtype
residual - no longer meets full crit. but usually the prominent gone but negative symptoms still around
schizophreniform disorder
less than 6 months schizo type symptoms. early form
schizoaffective disorder
mood disorder and schizo
delusional disorder
non-bizarre delusions: jealousy, erotomania, stalking

bizarre:
brief psychotic disorder
1 day to 1 month
triggered by extreme stress or post partam psychosis
etiology schizo - genetics
apolopoprotein
most disorders
etiology schizo - neurotransmitters
dopamine theory: EXCESS LEVELS
drugs that alleviate symptoms reduce dopamine activity

amphetamines - which increase dopamine levels can induce psychosis
mesocortical pathway
under reactive
mesolimbic pathway
overactive
evaluation of dopamine theory
blocks it immediately but symptoms take several weeks

to be effective antipsychotic - need other neurotransmitters to be involved =

not just one thing!!!
etiology neurologically schizophrenia
enlarged ventricles, loss brain cells
reduced activity in prefrontal cortex
developmental factors schizo

thats why?
prefrontal cortex matures in late adolescence or early adult
dopamine activity peaks also

excessive neuronal pruning - brain become more efficient but now too efficient

that's why symptoms appear in late adolescense but brain damage occurs early in life
socio economic status - schizo
highest rests among urban poor
social selection theory
people with schizo move down social economic system
sociogenic hypothesis
schizo common in poor
tx of schizo - medication
OLD typical: thorazine, haldol, navane

atypical: clorazil, resperdal, seroquel
tx schizo - psych treatments
Freud - psycho therapy no work. meds, training
family therapy- reduce expressed emotions
CBT - possible- recognize and challenge beliefs