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235 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Cephalocaudal Development?
head to feet develop
What is Proximodistal Development?
center moving outward (internal organs)
What is the time spand for the Germinal Phase?
conception to two weeks
What happens during the Germinal Phase?
1. Zygote fertilized egg
2. Placenta: structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into fetus from mother’s bloodstream; allows waste to pass out
What is the time spand of the Embryonic Stage?
two to eight weeks
What occurs during the Embryonic Stage?
1. Head develops quickly
2. Face and neck develop
3. Major organs of the digestive system differentiates
4. Buds for limbs form and grow
5. Circulatory system between embryo and placenta is complete
6. Heartbeat begins
What is the time frame for the fetal stage?
8th week to birth
During the third month after conception, what new developments happen for the child?
1. Digestive organs begin to form
2. Buds for teeth form
3. Sex organs develop rapidly
4. Arms and fingers move
During the fourth month after conception, what new developments happen for the child?
1. Face takes on human appearance
2. Lower body outgrows head
3. Bones defined throughout the body
During the 5th month after conception, what new developments happen for the child?
1. Fingernails and toenails appear
2. Lanugo: fine, wooly hair over body
3. Vernix: waxy coating collects
During the 6th month after conception, what new developments happen for the child?
1. Eyebrows and lashes well defined
2. Eyes completely formed
3. Cerebral cortex layered
During the 7th month after conception, what new developments happen for the child?
1. Fetus capable of life outside uterus
2. Cerebral fissures develop rapidly
During the 8th month after conception, what new developments happen for the child?
1. Fat is deposited for later use
2. Fingernails beyond finger tips
3. Lanugo is shed
4. Myelination of brain takes place
5. Chief organs increase functioning
6. Vernix covers body
What are teratogens?
harmful toxins that affect development resulting in defect, damage or anomaly
What is stress linked with?
prematurity and low birth weight
What the effects of a pregnant woman smoking?
mild stimulant absorbed in the fetus' bloodstream; increases fetal activity, low birth weight, increase SIDS
What happens when a pregnant hippy gets down with the herb?
low birth weight, disturbed sleep in newborns, reduced attention to environment
What happens when a pregnant woman sticks herself with heroin? (by that i dont mean she got fucked by a superhero)
premature birth weight, tremulous behavior (shaking), poor sleep, poor sucking and feeding, risk of SIDS
What happens when a coke head gets fucked for some coke?
“crack babies” premature size/weight, tremulous behavior, nasal stuffiness, high pitched crying, respiratory and regurgitation problems, hyperactivity, rigidity, withdrawal symptoms, genital/urinary tract, kidney or heart deformity, seizures
What is a comorbidity?
abuse of multiple substances likely. thats messed up
What is the leading teratogen?
What can alcohol do to a fetus?
1. Most common cause of mental retardation
2. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: growth retardation, head and facial abnormalities, microcephaly, skeletal, brain and heart damage
3. Poor impulse control, poor attention, over activity, decrease cognitive deficits, don’t move past concrete thinking
4. Fetal Alcohol Effects: some symptoms of FAS, but less severe
What is the "90 day rule"
sperm may also be impacted by teratogenic influences: agent orange(what the fuck, dont u clean shit agent orange), alcohol, cocaine, etc....
What vision capabilities do infants and newborns have?
1. Intact, functional
2. Focus 7-9 inches
3. Preference for human faces
What taste and smell capabilities do infants and newborns have?
Both present at birth, preference for sweet
What touch capabilities do infants and newborns have?
Heat, cold, pressure and pain all present at birth
What reflex capabilities do infants and newborns have?
Inborn automatic responses to a particular form of stimulation
What the first functional sense?
hearing: Fetus can hear sounds around 6 months in uterus and recognize mother’s voice
What is the rooting reflex?
 Survival value, stroke cheek and baby will turn head toward the stimulation source. Helps find nipple (thats important)
What is the stepping reflex?
Basis for complex motor skills hold infant with bare feet touching floor, infant will mimic a stepping response (disappears near 2 months)
What is the sucking reflex?
Place a finger in mouth and baby will suck; permits feeding
What is the eyeblink reflex?
Shine a bright light or clap, they will close eyelids; protects from strong stimulation
What gross and fine motor skills are present at the ages 2 & 3?
 Gross Motor: walk rhythmically, jump, hop, push a riding toy with feet
 Fine Motor: remove simple clothing items, start to use a spoon
What gross and fine motor skills are present at the ages 3 & 4?
 Gross Motor: walk upstairs, alternating feet, catches ball by trapping in chest, rides a tricycle
 Find Motor: fasten/unfasten large buttons, uses scissors, copies lines, circles, draws tadpole person
What gross and fine motor skills are present at the ages 4 & 5?
 Gross Motor: walks downstairs alternating feet, runs smoothly, catches ball with hands, rapid smooth steering
 Fine Motor: uses a fork, cuts with scissors on lines, copies triangles and some letters
What gross and fine motor skills are present at the ages 5 & 6?
 Gross Motor: increase running speed, true skipping, ride bicycle
 Fine Motor: uses knife to cut food, tie shoes, draw 6 part person, copies words and numbers
What differences in motor sklls can be seen between the two genders?
boys ahead of girls in force and power; girls ahead in fine motor and gross motor skills which involve good balance
What is temperament?
A relatively constant basic disposition which is inherent in a person that underlies and modulates his/her behavior
What are the three temperaments the Thomas and Chess developed?
1. Difficult (10%): often wail, cry and are negative in new situations, eat and sleep irregularly
2. Slow-to-Warm-Up(15%): often inactive, adapt slowly and can be withdrawn and show a negative mood
3. Easy(40%): cheerful, adaptable, easily established routines
**Mixture (35%)
What is Goodness of Fit
the match between the characteristics of the infant and his/her family is critical to development. Some are better matches than others
What is attachment
the affectional bond between an infant and its caretaker
What is Stranger anxiety?
develops when infants are around 6-7 months ending around 18 months. If a stranger approaches, the infant becomes afraid and reaches for caregiver
Describe securely attached children.
child uses the parent as a safe base to explore, when separated the child may not cry during absence, seek contact when parents returns, decrease crying if present (65% of US infants)
describe children with aviodant attachment.
unresponsive to parent when present, no distress when she leaves, react to stranger similar as to parent, slow to greet parent when she returns (20% of US infants)
describe children with resistant attachment.
seek closeness with their parents, fail to explore upon return display angry, resistant behavior, cannot be comforted ( 10-15% of US infants)
decribe children that have disorganized/disoriented attachment.
greatest amount of insecurity, in reunion show disorganized confused behaviors; seem confused, glazed and spacey. Mothers are more avoidant and inconsistent with a lack of sensitivity to infant’s needs (5% of US infants)
Describe an authoritarian parenting style.
strong, controlling parents, demand obedience, punitive and forceful, children often do poorly socially and academically, lower self-esteem (do it because I say so)
Describe a premessive parenting style.
nurturant with little controls, few demands and limits. Children are often impulsive, immature, irresponsible and academically unmotivated
Describe an authoritative parenting style.
parents set high yet reasonable expectations; teach how to set and meet goals, give emotional support, promote communication. Children become independent, good self control and self esteem, mature and helpful. Do better in school
describe a harmonious parenting style.
believe there should be no power disadvantage in families, give an equal say, and emphasize humanitarian goals over achievement. Effects less clear, but seems better for females
What happened in the Harlow Monkey Studies?
1. Reared Monkeys in isolation or with a surrogate mother
2. After 6 months sent back to colony
3. Isolated monkeys showed indifference, were terrified or were aggressive with other monkeys, failed to form relationships with opposite sex, were abusive to their offspring
What is hypoththesized about attachment and contact comfort?
that animals/humans need warmth, comfort as a primary need
When scared, where did the Harlow Monkey Studies run?
the monkeys ran to cloth mother when scared
Describe the importance in peer relationships.
1. Arena for exercising independence from adults and adult control
2. Equal footing relationship
3. Help translate and establish trends/group belonging, behavior codes
4. Serve as role models
5. Provide emotional support
What is the Adolescent Growth Spurt?
rapid growth in height and weight as the body is preparing for hormonal shifts/ maturations
What is asychrony?
certain body parts grow at different speeds leading to a lack of proportion
What do early maturing males have?
positive self-concepts
What does puberty impact?
social/emotional development
What do early maturing females have?
a chance of depression, anxiety, negative interactions
What is Adolescent Egocentricism?
way of thinking the world is focused on themselves (Elkind)
What is Imaginary Audience?
belief that everyone in the environment is concerned with the behavior/appearance of him/herself
What is a personal fable?
view him/herself as somehow unique or heroic
What is an invinciblity fable?
the feeling the h/she is invincible
What is a common thought about the frequency of storm and stress?
that it occurs more than it actually does
What are the most common topics of conflict between parents and their children?
chores and dress style and sex/drugs
What are peers roles in adolescence?
1. Role models
2. Code/culture
3. Group and belonging
4. Encourage socially positive behaviors
What does Piaget's Cognitive Development measure?
How a child thinks, including reasoning, remembering and problem solving
What is the Assimilation process?
how to fit new information into the present system of knowledge
What is the Accomodation process?
existing structures don’t fit so a child must develop new schemas
range of sensorimotor
birth to 2 years of age
1. Infants learn through concrete motor actions
2. Accomplish object permanence (6months): recognizes that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer visible
3. Develop capacity for mental imagery
4. Organize information into categories
5. Increasingly able to use purposeful activity
range of preoperational
2-7 years
1. Gradually improve in mental images
2. Can pretend
3. Action oriented
4. Develop representational thought: think about people, places and things in their absence
5. Have NOT mastered conversation: the idea that basic properties of an object remain stable even if superficial properties change (smash play duo and the amount changes for the children, when actually the shape has just change)
flaws of thinking in preoperational children
1. Centration
2. Irreversibility
3. Egocentricism
tendency to focus on one aspect of a problem and neglect other aspects (beaker experiment with blue water)
inability to envision reversing an action
thinking characterized by a limited ability to share another person’s point of view (juice box and ribbons)
range of concrete operations
7-11 years
concrete operations
1. The child performs operations on tangible objects and events
2. Show increased flexibility in thinking
3. Can begin to see cause and effect
4. Masters reversibility and decentration
5. Can retrace thoughts
What was piaget criticized for?
underestimating children’s abilities, not focusing enough on individual differences; much research still supports his theories
more stages?
yes, People believe there may actually be a post-formal operations stage, which comes after the formal operations
Theory of Lifespan Development
believes each stage involves a psychosocial crisis: a transition which is organized around social relationships and that personality is determined by these stages
1st Stage of Erick Erickson's Theory
First year of life: Trust vs. Mistrust (is my world predictable and supportive?)
2nd Stage of Erick Erickson's Theory
Second and Third year of Life: Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (Can I do things myself or must I rely on others?)
3rd Stage of Erik Erickson's Theory
4th-6th year of life: Initiative vs. Guilt (Am I good or am I bad?)
4th Stage of Erik Erickson's Theory
6th year- puberty: Industry vs. Inferiority (Am I competent or am I worthless?)
5th Stage of Erik Erickson's Theory
Adolescence: Identity vs. Confusion (Who am I and where am I going?)
6th Stage of Erik Erickson's Theory
Early Adulthood: Intimacy vs. Isolation (Shall I share my life with another or live alone?)
7th Stage of Erik Erickson's Theory
Middle Adulthood: Generativity vs. Self-absorption (Will I produce something of real value?)
8th Stage of Erik Erickson's Theory
Late Adulthood: Integrity vs. Despair (Have I lived a full life?)
range of Heteronomous Moarlity
ages 4-7
Heteronomous Moarlity
1. Rules are subject to another’s laws
2. What you are told is right or wrong
3. Rules are absolute and real
range of Autonomous Morality
7 years and up
Autonomous Morality
1. One is subject to his/her own law
2. Things aren’t all right or wrong
3. A child can consider intentionality
Three levels of moral reasoning (in order)
1. Preconventional level
2. Conventional level
3. Postconventional level
Ways to promote Healthy Aging
1. Increase healthy behaviors
2. Promote companionship
3. Take vitamin
4. Stay active physically and intellectually
5. Volunteer or work
6. Maintain positive relationships with family friends
7. Have a positive attitude
8. Decrease sun exposure
9. Decrease smoking, drinking
10. Be a health care consumer; ask question
11. Explore medication interactions
12. Find faith
a distinctive pattern of behavior, thoughts, motives, and emotions that are consistent in an individual over time
personality traits
Long term disposition to behave in particular ways in a variety of situations
Cattels Theory of Personality
1. Studied traits using factor analysis
2. Developed the 16 personality factors
3. Questionaire
4. Examples: reserved-outgoing; relaxed- tense; trusting- suspicious
McRae and Costa
developed the “Big Five” personality traits
the “Big Five” personality traits
1. Openness
2. Conscientiousness
3. Extraversion
4. Agreeableness
5. Neuroticism
Psychodynamic Theory
Freud’s psychoanalytic theory
Focus on the influences of early childhood
Emphasis on unconscious motives/conflicts
Primary focus on sexual and aggressive urges
impulses/dominated by pleasure/avoid pain
“voice of reason”, mediator of id/superego, helps find compromises
moral component of personality; rigid standards
Oral Stage
1. Sucking, swallowing, biting
2. Independence/dependence
Anal Stage
1. Expelling Feces
2. Retaining Feces
3. Orderliness
4. Stinginess
Phallic Stage
1. Touching Penis or clitoris
2. Oedipus complex
3. M: Fear of castration
4. F: Penis Envy
Latency Period
Sexual interests suppressed
Genital Stage
Sexual contact with other people
Freud’s 3 Levels of Consciousness
1. Consciousness
2. Preconscious
3. Unconscious
what one is aware of at a particular point
material between awareness which can be easily accessed
that which has been repressed, exert influence over our behaviors out of our “awareness
defense mechansims
responses to anxiety which is caused by internal conflicts; attempts to reduce distress of anxiety/guilt
Examples of Defense Mechanisms
1. Displacement
2. Rationalization
3. Denial
Inferiority Complex
everyone must overcome feelings of weakness in comparison to competent adults/sibs
to develop ones own abilities in response to inferiorities
attempts to “conceal” one’s own feelings of inferiority
Reciprocal Determinism (Bandura)
1. Reinforcement history and cognition influence behavior
2. We see what we expect to see
3. We place ourselves in places which will confirm our beliefs
Self Efficacy
belief one can set out to accomplish tasks/goals; acquired from 4 sources
1. Mastery of new skills, overcome obstacles
2. Successful and competent role models
3. Positive feedback and encouragement
4. Awareness of feelings/manage responses
Locus of Control (Rotter)
1. Internal Locus of Control: people believe they are responsible for what happens to them
2. External Locus of Control: people believe their lives are controlled by luck, fate or other people
****Person by Situation Interaction (Mischel)****
1. People express particular traits in particular situations
2. Most likely to see consistency within these similar situations
3. Some traits are more situationally determined
Humanistic Perspective
1. Focus on the infer experiences of one’s personality and development
2. Unique human qualities
3. Freedom and potential for human growth
4. Optimistic View of Human Nature: can control impulses, not based on irrational needs and conflicts
pyramid of needs
1. Physiological needs- hunger, thirst, and so forth
2. Safety and Security-long-term survival and security
3. Belongingness and love- affiliation and acceptance
4. Esteem needs- achievement and gaining of recognition: Lower level- desire for other people to respect and give you reinforcement. Higher level- confidence
5. Cognitive needs- knowledge and understanding
6. Aesthetic needs- order and beauty, appreciation of the world around you
7. Need for self-actualization- realization of potential
8. Most humans never reach self actualizations, they are always moving towards achieving self-actualization
Hierarchy of Needs (Maslow)
A goal of humans is to be self-actualized, a based hierarchy of needs exist. Innate drive towards personal growth
Congruence and Unconditional Positive Regard (Carl Rogers)
1. Accepts the self-actualizing tendency; explores individuals who do and do not function well
2. Looked at the relationship between the self (one’s conscious feelings/views of self) and the person (sum of experiences, feelings, perceptions and wishes)
3. Congruence: when sense of self and the person are consistent it allows positive functioning
4. Incongruence: sense of self/person in conflict
5. Unconditional Positive Regard: attempt to resolve conflict; accept one may have acted badly and still be a good person; accepts one in a positive and accepting manner
undeveloped muscles, round shape
muscular, mature, rectangular shape, upright posture
thin, flat chest, large brain, young appearance, tall
any circumstance that threatens or is perceived to threaten one’s well being
the pursuit of a goal is prevented
Three types of conflicts
1) Approach-Approach Conflicts:
a choice must be made between two desirable goals. The least stressful type of conflict
2) Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict:
a choice must be made between two unattractive goals
3) Approach-Avoidance Conflict:
a choice must be made about to achieve a goal which has both positive and negative attributes
any notable difference in one’s life which requires adaptation. Both positive and negative life changes can be stressful
expectations or demands that one behave in a particular manner
General Adaptation Syndrome (Selye)
the body releases adrenal hormones, sympathetic nervous system is activated
body is on “high alert”
increases physiological vulnerability to stress
how and what strategies you use to buffer against the stress cycle. Active efforts to master, reduce or accept the demands created by stress
Displace Aggression
any behavior which is intended to hurt someone either physically or verbally
release of emotional tension
compensate for deprived/frustrated feelings by trying to promote a feeling of satisfaction in another area
people with more positive outlooks handle stress better
Type A Personalities
competitive, impatient, and more prone to aggression
2x rosk of disease
Type B Personalities
more relaxed, easy going and less quick to anger
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
enduring psychological disturbance attributed to the experience of a major traumatic event (war, car accident, tornado…)
o Replaying or recurrent thoughts of trauma
o Phobic avoidance of similar places
o Oversensitivity to sounds/increase startle reaction
o Nervousness
o Increased irritability or aggressiveness
Child Abuse
non-accidental physical attack on or injury to children by individuals caring for them
Child Neglect
absence of adequate social, emotional and physical care
Cycle of Violence
findings that those who are abused are at a greater risk for abusing
Social Learning Theory
violent, aggressive children have learned those behaviors from their parents
Biological/Genetic Theory
aggressiveness is a genetic characteristic “passed down” by parents
Interaction Theory
aggressive predisposition combined with an aggressive environment creates a cycle of violence
Mental Disorder
any behavior or emotional state that causes distress or suffering, is maladaptive and disturbs relationships and the greater community
Legal Standards
whether or nor a person is in control of behavior and aware of the consequences of his/her actions
standard reference book for all disorders
5 Axes of Dimensions (disorders)
1- Primary clinical problem (anxiety)(schizo)
2- Personality Disorders
3- Medical Conditions relevant to disorder (diabetes)
4- Social and Environmental Problems
5- Global Assessment of Functioning
severe impairment in social interaction and communication
Aspergers Syndrome
higher level communication skills than autistic children, significant social impairment (facial feedback training)
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
o Inattention, impulsivity and/or hyperactivity which is inappropriate for a child’s particular developmental age
o 5% of school aged children
o Genetic link
o Multimodal treatment approach (Ritalin)
Conduct Disorder
Violate social norms
Physical aggression
Cruelty to animals
Lack remorse
May be a precursor to sociopath
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
o Continuous feelings of worry or anxiety
o Feeling of dread/foreboding
o Restlessness
o Difficulty concentrating
o Irritability
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
o Anxiety resulting from clear/predictable danger or event
o Reliving trauma in thoughts or dreams
o Psychic numbing
o Detachment from others
o Inability to feel happy
Panic Disorder
o Recurring attack of intense fear or panic accompanied by feelings of impending doom or death
o Symptoms include: trembling, shaking, dizziness, chest pain, sweating, heart palpitations, hot/cold flashes, sense of losing control
exaggerated fear of a specific situation, activity, or thing
Social Phobia
fear of being in a situation where a person will be observed by others
fear of being alone in public places from which escape might be difficult or help will be unavailable at its worse one doesn’t leave his/her home
a recurrent, persistent and unwished thought
repetitive ritualized behavior in which people feel a lack of control over it.
Creates anxiety to not be a certain way, disorder when it interferes with everyday life
3 Specific Phobias
o Brontophobia: fear of thunder and lightning
o Arachibutyrophobic: fear of peanut butter sticking to the roof of the mouth
o Sesquipedalophobics: fear of long words
o Sadness, lethargy, inactivity, feelings of helplessness and hopelessness
o Genetic Link
o Behavioral changes: slower motor reactions
o Cognitive changes: cognitive distortions
o Physical changes: alters immune functioning
o Abnormally high levels of energy
o Great/special plans
o Faulty thinking
o Impulsive behavior
o Cycle through depression and mania
o At least one manic episode with history of depression
o Responsive to lithium
o Problem with compliance: miss the high
o High suicide risk
Personality Disorders
Rigid, maladaptive traits that cause great stress or lead to an inability to get along with others, or to function well in the world
Paranoid Personality Disorder
o Suspicious
o Argumentative
o Paranoid
o Looking out for trickery
o Blame others
Schizoid Personality Disorder
o Have very few friends
o Loner
o Indifferent to praise or criticism
o Show no warm or tender feelings to other people
o Likes to break rules/laws
o Gladly take advantage of people
o Lacks remorse
o Can appear charming/friendly
o Almost looks schizophrenic
o Bizarre patterns in behavior/peculiar
o Uses unusual words
o Sometimes has superstitious beliefs
Borderline Personality Disorder
o Manipulative
o Stable pattern of unstable relationships
o Splitting: all good or bad
o Self-mutilating behaviors
o Impulsivity
Histrionic Personality Disorder
o Overly dramatic
o Everything is a trauma
o Attention seekers
o Seductive
o Not genuine
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
o Feelings of grandiosity
o Sense of privilege
o Feels special
o Expect favors from others
Compulsive Personality Disorder
o Perfectionist
o Preoccupied with details
o Rules are essential
o Particular
o Serious and formal
Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder
o Indirectly expressing anger by “forgetting” or being “stubborn”
o Procrastination
o Can’t admit to anger
o Habitually late
Psychosis or condition involving distorted perceptions of reality and an inability to function in most aspects of life
- 17-25 YRS OLD
POSITIVE Symptoms of Schizophrenia
• Positive Symptoms (presence of a distortion or bizarre behavioral symptom)
o Bizarre delusions
o Hallucinations
o Heightened sensory awareness
o Disorganized incoherent speech and behavior
NEGATIVE Symptoms of Schizophrenia
o Poverty of speech (limited speech)
o Emotional flatness
o Loss of motivation
o Social withdrawal
o Apathy
Dissociative Disorders
Consciousness, behavior and identity are split off
inability to remember important personal information; cannot be explained by ordinary forgetfulness
Fugue State
no concept of self/ can take on a whole new identity/life
Dissociative Identity Disorder
the appearance of 2 or more identities within one person
Psychotropic medication
alter the biochemistry of the brain
• Ritalin for ADHD
• Paxil/Xanax for anxiety
• Prozac, Zoloft, Celexa for depression
• Lithium for Bi-polar disorder
lesion/destroy problematic areas of the brain to eliminate disruptive behaviors (lobotomy, ocd surgery)
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
shock therapy; beneficial to those with severe depressions which are not responsive to medication/therapy. Can lead to memory impairments. Unclear on why/how it works
based on Freudian principles believing in the impact of early childhood
Psychodynamic Therapies
Looks at unconscious conflicts, defense mechanisms and symptom resolution in a broader manner than Freud
Systematic Desensitization
step-by-step process of eliminating a fear. Uses counterconditioning; pair relaxation techniques with feared situation
Aversion Therapy
substitute’s punishment for the reinforcement that has perpetuated a bad habit. Antibuse for alcoholics; shock for pedophiles
Humanistic Therapies
Belief that people need to be self actualized, unconditional acceptance. Help build self esteem and feelings of acceptance
Cognitive Therapies
Help identify beliefs and expectations which maintain problems and conflicts. Challenges distortions in thinking
Family/Couples Therapy (3)
• Focus on the dynamics in the family as a system with different rules, roles and motivations
• Treat each person as integral to the bigger system: sees “identified” patient as being the symptom bearer in the family
• Change one part of the system and the whole system needs to adapt
Group Therapy (3)
• People with similar or different problems come together to provide support, strategies
• Normalization a key component
• Can aid in social skills, empathy
Social Psychology
Examines the influences of social processes on the way people think, feel, and behave
a positive or negative evaluative reaction toward a person, object or concept
Attitude Strength
the durability or impact of an attitude
o Durability: if it lasts over time
o Impact: if it impacts behavior or thoughts
Social Cognition
initial impressions: initial impressions make a difference; and have shown strong effects
Social Influence
the presence of others energizes performance
Socials Norms
shared expectations about thoughts, feelings and behavior; can vary by time and place; culturally sensitive
Social Role
a set of norms which characterize how people in specific social positions should behave
Role Conflict
norms accompanying different roles may clash
The adjustment of people’s behavior, attitudes, and beliefs to a group
Informational Social Influence
follow the options of those we believe have accurate knowledge and believe they are doing right
Normative Social Influence
conform to obtain rewards that come from being accepted by other people while trying to avoid rejection
Situational Influence on Behaviors
see others engaging in a behavior, likely to be influenced by it
Asch Conformity Study
• Factors which affected conformity:
o Group Size: conformity increased from 5-35% as group size increased: after 5 this stabilized
o Presence of a Dissenter: when someone else dissents he/she serves as a model and it significantly reduces conformity
LaPiere Study
Attitudes do not necessarily determine or predict our behavior
Norm of Reciprocity
the golden rule, to get you to comply with a request you are given an unsolicited favor or gift
Door in the Face Technique
persuader makes a large request expecting you to reject and then makes a smaller request believing you will be more likely to comply
Foot in the Door
a persuader gets you to comply with a small request and then presents a larger request thinking you will now be more likely to comply
Low Balling
the persuader gets you to commit to an action that before you perform it the “cost increases”
a form of compliance that occurs when people follow direct commands, usually from someone in a position of authority
Stanley Milgram’s Obedience to authority research project
What percentage of subjects would obey and administer shocks up to 450 volts?
the name of the subject was Wallace and Williams was the experimenter
Variables which influenced obedience in Milgram study
o Remoteness of the victim
o Closeness and legitimacy of authority figure
o Cog in the wheel
o Personal characteristics: differences were weak or nonexistent
o Cultural differences: similar results cross culturally
Helping behavior
Diffusion of Responsibility
when other’s are present the responsibility to help is divided among those present
Bystander Effect
people are less likely to provide help when in groups
Who are more willing to help?
o People who are more similar to us
o Women are more likely to be helped than men
o Perceived Responsibility: more likely to help those who we view as “true victims”
Factors that influence Attraction to Others
1) proximity
2) Similarity in attitude
3) Matching Hypothesis
Passionate Love
intensely emotional and physical
Companionate Love
deep affection, share emotional intimacy and friendship
Sternberg’s Three Components of Love
Intimacy: sense of closeness and sharing
Passion: emotional, physical
Commitment: efforts to maintain the relationship with difficulties and costs
Negative attitudes towards people based on membership in a group
characteristics we attribute to people based on their membership in a group
treat people differently and unfairly based on group affiliation
Self-serving Bias
we attribute our successes to personal factors and out failures to situational forces. We do the opposite for others: assume others’ failures are due to personal factors. This bias increases prejudice
Group Membership
We categorize ourselves as “in group” or “out group” and view our members in more favorable terms
Homogeneity Bias
believe those in the “out group” are all the same, although we see the diversity within our own group