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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a measure's ability to produce consistent results
applied to a psychological measure, measure's ability to assess the variable it is supposed to assess
the applicility of the findings to the entire population of interest to the researcher
measures the extent to which two variables are related (related to eachother)
correlation coefficient
the ability of a theory to be proven wrong as a means of advancing
opposite of the mind body dualism
all physiological events = biochemical events in the brain
mental events & physical events can have different causes mind is free to think & choose, while the body is contrained by nature
a systematic way of organizing and explaining observations set of propositions, about relations among various phenomena
the result was probably not due to chance
statistical significance
the question of how mental and physical events interact
mind-body problem
the higher individuals measure on one variable, the higher they are likely to measure on the other (lower score on one side and lower score on the other)
positively correlated
the higher participants meausre on one variable, the lower they will measure on the other
negatively correlated
2 variables to assess the extent to which belong high on one measure predicts being high or low on the other
to correlate
measures the extent to which 2 variables are related
correlation coefficent
weak correlation (the two variables are not relatable)
Zero Correlation Coefficient
fundamental unit of the nervous system
cells specialize in electrical and chemical communication
branchlike extensions of the neuron which recieve inputs from other cells
long extension from the cell body that transmits information to other neurons
tight coat of cells composed primarily of lipids that facilitates transmission of information to other neurons
myelin sheath
spreading voltage changes, which occur when the neural membrane recieves a signal from another cell
strength diminsihes as signals travel along the cell membrane and cumulative
graded potential
"firing" of the neuron, not cumulative
all or none quality
action potential
chemicals that transmit information from one cell to another
connections between neurons occur here
directs psychological and basic life processes
responds to stimuli consists of brain & spinal cord
Central Nervous System
carries information to and from the central nervous system
Peripheral Nervous System
(division of PNS)
conveys sensory information to the CNS & sends motor messages to muscles; involved in intentional actions
Somatic Nervous System
(division of PNS) serves basic life functions, such as beating of the heart and response to stress
Automatic Nervous System
readies the body in response to threat, activates the organism
"emergency system"
activate in response to threat
fight or flight response
Sumpathetic Nervous System
Calms body down maintains energy, supports routine activities that maintain the body's sotre of energy
(regulating blood-sugar, secreting saliva, eliminating waste, heart rate & pupil size)
Parasympathetic Nervous System
a set of structures with diverse functions involving emotion, motivation, learning & memory
includes the amygdala & hippocampus
Limbic System
involved in many emotional processes, especially learning and remembering emotionally significant events, important in fear responses and anger
dampened by cortex & mature at birth
stores new info in memory so that person can later consciously remember it
(HM->epilepsy, memory, REM sleep)
above and connected to spinal cord, composed of the medulla oblongata, cerebellum & parts of the reticular formation, maintains major life functions
(breathing, heart rate, digestion, arousal, involved in coma)
most primitive & essential
large structure at back of brain, involved in movement & fine motor learning, balance, complicated & smooth movement -> complex activity becomes automized
allows the flexible construciotn of sequences of voluntary movements, permits subtle discriminations amoung complex sensory patterns, makes symbolic thinking possible
divided into two hemispheres with colateral control
Cerebral Cortex
located in lower part of cerebral cortex
important in hearing & language
auditory perception and speech comprehension
Temporal Lobe
Located in back part of cerebral cortex
specialized in vision & blind sight
Occipital Lobe
located in front of the occipital love, involved in the sense of touch, detecting movement, locating objects in space & experiencing one's own body as it moves through space
complex visual-spatial processing, phantom limbs, somatosensory cortex
Parietal Lobe
functions: movement, attention, planning, social skills, abstract thinking, memory & same aspects of personality, speech production
Frontal Lobe
the primary zone of the frontal lobe
planning, reasoning & social skills
motor cortex
primary area of the parietal lobe, behind the central fissure, recieve information form different parts of the body
somatosensory cortex
located inleft frontal lobe at the base of the motor cortex, movements of mouth and tongue
necessary for speech production & use + understanding of grammar
Broca's Area
able to comprehend language but unable to speak, put together grammatical sentences or articulating words
Damage to Broca's Area
located in the left temporal lobe, important in language comprehension
Wernicke's Area
difficulty understanding what words & sentences mean
"Word Salad"
Damage to Wernicke's Area
involved in complex mental processes such as forming perceptions, ideas, & plans
Association Area
process raw sensory information or intiates movement
Primary Area
see the object and respond to it emotionally but message doesn't reach amygdala
parents are imposters
capgras delusion
cannot consciously percieve objects on a certain side of brain, lacks recognizing the object and two different pathways of sending images to the brain
Blind sight
individuals whose corpus callosum has been cut, blocking communication between two hemispheres
Split Brain
somatosensory cortex- map of body- recieve stimulation & when limb isnot there it is taken over by adjacent section- believe limb is there
Phantom limb
involves subjective awareness of stimuli, feelings, or ideas (paying attention)
Conscious Mental Processes
not presently consciousbut could be readily brought to consciousness
Preconscious Mental Processes
are inaccessible to consciousness becuase they would be too anxiety provoking and thus being supressed
Unconscious Metal Processes
people easily hypnotized are able to form vivid visual images and to become readily abosrbed in fantasy, day dreams, movies and the like
hypnotizability personality traits
a cyclincalbiological process that evolved around the daily cycles of light and dark the cycle of sleep and waking in humans and animals body temp. hormones, and life support processes
Circadian Rhythm
8 hours on average
normal sleep cylce
as the night progresses person spends less time in NREM sleep and more time in rEM sleep
sleep cycle progression
vivid, narrative, story-like dreams
relaxed, awake, eyes closed-slower frequency & higher amplitude
Alpha waves
awake and alert
high frequency and low amplitude
Beta Waves
muscle tone maintained, eye movemtns are absent, stage 1 & 2 sleep
theta waves
relaxed muscles, decrease rate of resperation & slightly loser body temp
stage 3 & 4
Delta Waves
story line of dream
manifest content
the dreams underlying meaning
latent content
inability to sleep
deep relaxaiton and suggestibility
stimulation of one sensory modality leading to perceptual experience in another sensory modality
synthesis of senstations
motives for achievement, autonomy, mastery, power, and other self oreiented goals
relatedness- motives for connectedness with others
the body's tendency to maintain a realtively constant state that permits cells to live and function
motives that can be activated and expressed outside of awareness
implicit motives
enjoyment of and interest in activity for its own sake
intrinsic motivation
an innate drive such as hunger, thirst & sex
primary drive
a drive learned through conditioning and either learning mechanisms such as modiling
secondary drive
motives to express oneself & grow
self actualization
relatively extended emotional state
emotion involves 2 factors: physiological arousal & cognitive interpretation
Schactner & Singer Theory
the inability to recognize one's own feelings (w/o language or emotion)
emotions originate in peripheral nervous system responses that the central nervous system then interprets
James-Lange Theory
emotion-including stimuli simultaneously elicit both an emotion experience such as fear and bodily responses such as sweaty palms
Cannon Bard Theory