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76 Cards in this Set

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Parkinsons Disease results from loss of ___________-secreting neurons in thi area of the brain___________
Dopaminergic, Nigrostriatal pathway
Patients with Alzheimers have an excess of _________protein present in their brain.
tau
Induction of long-term potentiation involves activation of _________ receptors
NMDA
Amnesia for events that occur *after* some disturbances to the brain is called ______
Anterograde
The ______pathway interconnects the entorhinal cortex with the granule cells of the dentate gyrus.
Perforenth
__________is the process by which immediate memories are transformed into long term memories.
consolidation
The ______nucleus of the amygdala is the most important part of the brain for the expression of emotional responses provoked by aversive stimuli.
central
Damage to the _______ _________ cortex impairs the extinction of conditioned emotional response
ventralmedial prefrontal
Feelings of fear in humans are produced by electrical stimulation of the________
amygdala
The hormone that sends a satiety signal to the brain to stop eating is________
Leptin
The hormone that produces milk in lactating female is _________; the hormone that promotes the secretion of milk is _________.
prolactin, oxytocin.
In the taub podcast your listened to n class, CI stands for ________ _________ Therapy
Constraint induced
CI therapy is used to treat patients who are victim of _______
stroke
Skeletal muscle contractions produce________
movement of the body
The _______is formed by the synapse of an efferent nerve terminal onto a muscle fiber
neuromuscular junction
Contractions of cardiac muscle are initiated by which neurotransmitter________
Acetylecholine
The vertical patch of cortex located rostral to the central sulcus is know as the ____________
Primary motor cortex
A key function of premotor cortex is to
allow an organism to learn to respond to an arbitrary visual cue with a learned, specific movement
A person sufferening from Parkinson's disease may experience_______as a side effect of treatment using L-DOPA
dyskinesia, schizophrenia
The ______pattern of EEG activity is characterized by irregular, high frequency (13-30hz) low voltage waves
beta
The transition between wakefulness and sleep is marked by the appearance of ________waves in the sleep record
theta
You are watching the sleep record of a person whose record contains 85% delta wave activity. Your best guess is that this person is
in stage 4 of slow wave sleep
what is Not a characteristic of REM sleep
Alternating delta and beta EEG activities
Which of the following represents a mental sate that accompanies slow-wave sleep?
nightmares
The notion that sleep or wakefulness is produced by a substance that circulates within the blood is
unlikely given that the cerebral hemispheres of a dolphin sleep at different times.
What is true of neurons within the ventrolateral peroptic area (vIPOA)
electrical stimulation of vIPOA neurons produces signs of dowsiness
The capacity of circuits involving the vIPOA and the locus coeruleus, raphe nuclei, and dorsal pons to show mutual inhibition may result in
the alternation between sleep and waking
Circadian rythms are
endogenous cycles of activity over the course of a day.
The mood change and cognitive dysfunction associated with jet lag and shift work can be reduced by
consumption of melatonin
The key distinction between an organizational hormone effect and an activational hormone effect is that
organizational effects are permanent
the mullerian system structures are the precursors to the
female internal sex organs
the key event that starts sexual matuartion at the onset of puberty is that
the pituitary secretes gonadotropin-releasing hormones
The growth of pubic and axillary hair is promoted by
androgen's secreted from adrenal cortex
Ovulation involves a surge in _______ which in turn _________
lutenizing hormone; ruptures the ovarian follicle and releases ovum
Sexual behavior in the male rat requires the presence of
testosterone
A phermone is
chemical that is released by one animal that affects the behavior of another animal of the same species
Damage to the ___________ would be expected to disrupt the integration of fear
amygdala
Elevated brain levels of the transmitter ________function to inhibit aggression
serotonin
phinease gage, who was injured when a steel rod was accidentally driven through his skull exhibited capricious, emotional behavior as a result of widespread damage to his
Ventromedial prefrontal cortex
Functional imaging studies of the brain during decisions-making suggest that personal moral dilemmas strongly activate the
Ventromedial prefrontal cortex
The combination of inadequate activation of the __________and enhanced activation of the _______ may result in excessive anger that results in harm to other persons.
prefrontal cortex, amygdala
What statement best illustrates the James-Lang theory of emotion
laugh and you will feel happy
According to the James Lang theory of emotion, which of the following is most important for subjective experience of an emotion
sensory feedback from muscles and internal organs
Your dog bites your best friend mark each time mark tries to pet her. Mark stops petting your dog. this is an example of
instrumental conditioning
You are listening to a song on the radio while doing your homework. the phone rings. your mother has called to tell you that your favorite uncle has died after being hit by a car. three months later you again hear the same song and suddenly feel very sad. in this example, the unconditional response is
you feeling sad when your mother calls with the bad news
Your ability to recall a series of events you have witnessed is referred to as
episodic memory
The primary output of the hippocampus
arises from the pyramidal cells of field ca1
The NMDA receptor controls _______ and is normally blocked by _______
a calcium channel, magnesium ions
In classical conditioning, a neutral stimulus
is paired repeatedly with a stimulus that evokes a reflexive response
Instrumental conditioning involves strengthening connections between
circuits that detect a stimulus and motor control circuit that produce a response.
One striking aspect of H.M.'s memory deficit is that he
can learn some new task, but is unaware of having learned them.
declarative memory is
explicit memory
The Morris water maze can be viewed as a test of ________when the rats are_______
relational learning; released from a different point of the maze on each trial.
________neurons gather information from the environment related to light, odors, and contact with objects; while ________neurons function to contract muscles
sensory, motor
The ____is defined as comprised of the brain and spinal cord
Central Nervous system
what represents a correct match between a neuronal organelle and its function
mitochondria; extraction of energy
The membrane of a nerve cell is comprised of
a double layer of lipid molecules
proteins are produced within the cytoplasm by
ribosomes
myelination of brain nerve axon membrane is accomplished by_____
oligodendrocytes
The simplest version of withdrawal from pain reflex is a
pain receptor that sysnapses onto an interneuron, which in turn activates a motor neuron in the spinal cord
An________will be recorded from a nerve cell whose membrane potential rises above threshold
action potential
Which of the following events restores the membrane potential from the peak of action potential back down to resting potential
potassium ions move out of the cell
Which of the following is an important advantage associated with saltatory conduction?
Myelin speeds up the velocity at which an axon can conduct an action potential
After a vesicle fuses with the presynaptic membrane and releases its contents into the synaptic cleft, the membrane is
recycled to form new vesicles
metabotropic
G protein activation leads to activation of a second messenger
________neurons carry information towards the brain, while ______carry information toward the muscles
afferent, efferent neurons
a key function of apoptosis is
to terminate the formation of new neurons within the developing brain.
The cerebral cortex has grayish brown appearance because
the cortex contains many cell bodies
Which cortical lobe containes the primary somatosensory cortex
parietal
The planning and execution of movements is a function performed by the association cortex within the ______ cortical lobe
Frontal
Damage to the basal ganglia would be expected to produce difficulties in
motor movement
what represents the correct pairing of a thalamic nucleus with its projection to cortex
lateral geniculate nucleus: projects to primary visual cortex
The midbrain is comprised of the
tectum and tegmentum
Explain how a message is transmitted within a neuron
describe EPSP, IPSP(movement of ions involved), summation, threshold of excitation (axon hillock)
Describe membrane potential
The membrane potential is caused by an unequal distribution of ions (charged particles) inside and outside the axon. Four ions determine the membrane potential: sodium (Na+), chloride (Cl-), Potassium (k+), and Anions (A-). the membrane potential is a compromise between two factors: diffusion and electrostatic pressure. The force of diffusion is caused by thermal agitation. Particles found in high concentrations in one part tend to spread toward the region of low concentration. The force of diffusion acts on each ion by: CI- tends to enter the axon because it is more concentraed outside. Similiaryly Na+ tends to enter, and K+tends to leave. The organic anions, A- would leave the axon but cannot because they are so large. Electrostatic pressure is the repulsion between particles with like charges and the attraction unlike particles: the negative charge tends to push CI- out but attracts Na+ and the positive charge outside the axon tends to push K+ in.
Explain the necessary steps for depolarization of an NMDA recptor. Explain what molecules must bing to the receptor.
The NMDA receptor controls calcium ion channels. This channel is normally blocked by magnesium ion, which prevents calcium ions from entering the cell even when the receptor is stimulated by glutamate. If membrane is depolarized magnesium is dejected and the channel is free to admit calcium ions. neurotransmitter and voltage dependent.