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61 Cards in this Set

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Visual Capture
The tendency for vision to dominate the other senses.
Depth Perception
The ability to see objects in three dimnensions although the images that strike the retina are two-dimensional; allows us to judge distance.
Convergences
A binocular cue for pervceiving depth: The extent to which the eyes converge inward then looking at an object.
Cones
Receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in day;ight or in well-lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.
grouping
The perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups.
Parasychology
The study of paranormal phenomena, inluding ESP and psychokinesis.
farsightedness
The condition in which faraway objects are seen more clearly than near objects because the image of the near objects is focused behind the retina.
Young-Helmholts (three-color) theorY
tHE theory that the retina contains three different color receptors- one most sensative to red, one to green, one to blue-which when stimulated in combination can produce the perception of any color.
Phi phenomenom
An illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in succession.
Perceptual set
A mental presdisoposition to perceive one thing and not another.
Feature detectors
Nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle or movement.
Subliminal
Below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness.
Optic Nerve
The nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain.
Sensation
The process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system recieve and represent stimulus energies from our environment.
Top-dowm processing
Information processing guiding by higher level mental processes, as when we construct perception drawing on our experience and expectations.
Perception
The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, anabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events.
Bottom-Up Processing
Analysis that begins with the sense receptors and works up to the brains' intergration of sensory information.
Psychophysics
The study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimul, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them.
Absolute threshhold
The minimum stimuli needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time.
PErceptual Constancy
Perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent lightness, color shape, and size) even as illumination and retinal images change.
Signal DEtect theory
Predicts how and when we detect the presence of faint stimulus amid background stimulation. Assumes that there is no signal absolute threshold and that detection deoends partly on a person's experience, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue.
Parallel processing
The processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving.
BLind spot
The point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a blind spot because no receptor cells are located there.
Fovea
The central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster.
Gestalt
An organized whole. Gestalt psychologists emphasize our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.
Frequency
The number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time (for example, per second).
Binocular cues
Depth cues, such as retinal diparity and convergence, that depend on the use of two eyes.
Diffrence Threshold
The minimum difference that a person can detect between two stimuli. WE experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference.
Transduction
Conversion of one form of energy into another. in sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies into neural impulses.
Visual Cliff
A labratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals.
Wber's LAw
The principle that, to preceive their, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum %. (rather than constant amount)
Sensory Adaptation
Diminished sensativity as a consequence of constant stimulation.
Wavelength
The distinct form the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next. Electromagnetic wavelengths vary from the short blips of cosmic rays to the long pulses of radio transmission.
Monocular cues
Distance cues, such as linear perpective and overlap, available to either eye alone.
Sensory Interaction
The principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences it's taste.
Hue
The dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names Blus, green, and so forth.
gate-control theory
Theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological gate that blocks pain signals or allowes them to pass on to the brain. The gate is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain.
Opponent-Process Theory
The theory that opposing retinal processes(red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision. For example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green.
Place Theory
in hearing, the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea;s membrane is stimulated.
Selective Attention
The focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus, as in the cocktail party effect.
Cochlea
The coiled bony, fluid-filled tibe in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses.
Ptich
The tone's highness or lowness; depends on frequency.
Intensity
The amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we preceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by the wave's amplitude.
Extrasensory Perception (ESP)
The controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input. Said to include telepathy, claivoyance, and precognition.
Rods
REtinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond.
Pupil
The adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters.
Middle Ear
The chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiney bones(hammer, anvil, and stirrup) that concentrate that vibrations of the eardrum in the cochlea's oval window.
Audition
The sense of hearing.
Sensorineural Hearing loss
Hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerves; also called the nerve deafness.
REtinal Disparity
A binocular cue for perceiving depth: The greater the disparity between the two images the retina revieves of an object, the closer the object is to the viewer.
Frequency Theory
In hearing the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense it's pitch.
Inner ear
The innermost part of the ear, containing that cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs.
Figure-Ground
The organization of the visual field into objects (fiigure) that stand out from their surroundings.(ground)
Retina
The light-sensitive innre surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and the cones plus layers of the neurons that begin the processing of visual information.
Color constancy
Perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object.
Conduction hearing loss
hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea.
Iris
A ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and conrols the size of the pupil opening.
Lens
The transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to focus images on the retina.
Accommodation
The process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus the image of near objects on the retina.
Acuity
the sharpness of vision.
Nearsightedness
The condition in which nearby objects are seen more clearly than distant objects because that lens focuses the image of distant objects on front of the retina.