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286 Cards in this Set

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Define Motivation
The set of factors the initiate and direct behaviour, usually towad some goal.
Define Emotion
A psychological event involving:
1.) a physiological reaction, usually arousal
2.) some kind of expressive reaction, such as a distinct facial expression, and
3.) some kind of subjective experience, such as the conscious feeling of being happy or sad
Define Instincts
Unlearned characterisitc patterns of responding that are controlled by specific triggering stimuli in the world; not thought to be an important factor in explaining goal-directed bahaviour in humans
What are the internal factors that affect motivation?
instincts and drive
Define primary drive
A psychological state that arises in response to an internal physiological need, such as hunger or thirst.
Define secondary drive
A drive learned by association with a primary drive (eg the need for money).
Define homeostasis
The process through which the body maintains a steady state, such as a constant internal temperature or an adequate amount of liquids.
What do psychologists turn to to replace "instinct"?
The concept of "drive."
Define proximate factors.
Causes of bahaviour that derive from an organisms's immediate internal or external environment.
Define Ultimate factors.
Causes of behaviour that refer to the evolutionarily adaptive significance and reproductive consequences for the organism.
Deifne incentive motivation.
External facotrs in the environment-such as money, an attractive person, or tasty food- that exert pulling forces on peoples' actions.
What are the other factors besides drive for motivation and behaviour?
Incentive motivation, achievemnt motivation, and intrinsic motivation
Deifne achievement motive.
A need that varies in strength across individuals; its strength depends on (1) expectations about success and (2) how much value a persone places on succeeding at the task
What do people with higher achievement motivation tend to do?
They tend to work harder and more persistently on tasks,a nd they tend to acieve more than those who rank lower in achievemnt motivation.
Who plays an important role in developing achievement motivation?
Parents and teachers.
Also influenced by cultural factors because different cultures place emphasis on different skills.
Define intrinsic motivation.
Goal-directed behaviour that seems to be entirely self-motivated.
How can offering a reward affect intrinsic motivation?
It can cause the person to be less motivated to do it again. (they are less likely to enjoy it, think of payed athletes)
List Maslow's heirarchy of needs from the bottom to the top.
Physiological, safety, love and beloningness, esteem, self-actualization
What is leptin?
A hormone that may regulate the amount of energy stored in fat cells.
Describe the ventromedial hypothalamus.
A portion of the hypothalamus that, when lesioned, causes an animal to typically overeat and gain a lrage amount of weight; once thought to be a kind of "stop eating" or sateity center in the brain; its role in eating behaviour is currently unknown
Desribe the lateral hypothalamus.
A portion of the hypothalamus that, when lesioned, causes an animal to be reluctant to eat; probably plays some role in eaitng behaviour. but the precise role is unknown.
What other regions of the brain besides the hypothalamus seem to be involved in controilling eating behaviour?
portions of the brainstem, and maybe the hippocampus
What are the internal factors that are involved in hunger?
chemical signals and the brain
What are the external factors that are involved in hunger?
eating habits and food cues
Define set point
A natural body wieght, perhaps produced by genetic factoes, that the body seeks to maintain; when the body weught falls below the set point, people are motivated to eat; when weight exceeds the set point, people feel less motivated to eat.
Describe the evolutionary theory of hunger and eating.
Food supplies were unpredicatable in the past so we adapted to eat as much food as possible when it was available.
Describe anorexia nervosa
An eating disorder diagnosed when an otherwise healthy person refuses to maintain a normal weight level because of an intense fear of being overweight.
Describe bulemia nervosa.
An eating disprder in which the principal symptom is binge eating, followed by purging in which the person voluntarily vomits or uses laxitives to prevent weight gain.
Descirbe the differences between anorexia nervosa and bulemia nervose in terms of how recently it`s been found and how it`s related to culture.
Cases of anorexia nervosa can be traced back to medivial times and occurs today in all parts of the world. Cases of bulemia bervosa however has been seen much more in the latter half of the 20th century and little evidence of it existing outside of Western cultures is seen.
What are the internal factors that contribute to sexual motivation?
Hormones
What are the external factors that contribute to sexual motivation?
Touch and smell
Define sexual scripts.
Learned cognitive programs tha instrucy us on how, why, and what to do in our interations with sexual partners; their nature differs across gender and may vary across cultures
What is one very important factor that guides the initiation of sexual activity?
Mate selection
What srognly influences what people consider attractive?
Sociocultural factors
What do sexual scripts affect?
The attitudes we hold toward the sexual act.
Are men or women more likely to pursue short-term sexual strategies?
Men
What do men and women value in long-term partners? Are these differences seen in all cultures?
Men value attrativeness and youth and women value financial prospects (and tend to choose older men)
This is seen in virtually every society whihc suggests they may be evolutionary adaptations.
Define sexual orientation and give examples.
The direction of a person's sexual and emotional attraction: homosexuality, heterosexuality, and bisexuality are all sexual orientations
Is bisexuality more common in women or men?
women
What determines sexual orientation?
Evidence shows that it is at least partly determined by bioloigcal factors (differences founf in hypothalamus and identical twins are more likley to be homosexual if their twin is, even when reared apart) but the environment also likley plays a role.
What suggests that homosexuality may be caused by maternal immune system reactions (prenatal factors).
The more boys a women gives birth to, the more likely her next son is to be homosexual.
What is the general belief about the function of emotions?
They help us adapt to rapidly changing environmental conditions. They are powerful motivators, they help us prioritize our thoughts and force us to focus on finding solutions to problems.
When are poeple more likely to perform better and help others?
When they feel happy
When are people more likely to volunteer?
When they feel guilt.
What are some basic emotions that most researcers agree on?
-anger
-fear
-happiness
-sadness
-surprise
-disgust
At what age can children understand emotions the way that adults do?
as young as 8 years old
Do researcher believe that there is universal recognition of emotion from facial expression?
Yes
Describe the facial-feedback hypothesis.
The proposal that muscles in the face deliver siganls to the brain that are interpreted, depending on the pattern, as a subjective emotional state.
What do virtually all emotions lead to?
physiological arousal (eg muscles tense, heart rate speeds up, blood pressure and respiration rates increase)
Describ the polygraph.
A device that measures various indexes of physiological arousal in an effort to determine whether somone is telling a lie; the logic behind the test is that lying leads to greater emotionality, which can be picked up by such small measures of arousal as heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, and perspiration.
What can too much arousal lead to?
A breakdown in behavioural, biological, or psychological functioning.
Describe the relationship between arousal and performance.
arousal can increase performance but only to a cartain point and then it impedes us (think of an important test but if its worth too much we may not be able to focus.)
Whay are we often angry with the people we love?
Because we tend to expect more from them which increases the chances that our expectations may not be met.
Describe disgust
An adversion toward something distasteful
Describ the James-Lange Theory.
A theory of emotion that argues that body reactions preced and drive the subjective experience of emotions.
Describe the Cannon-Bard Theory.
A theory of emotion that argues that body reactions and subjective experiences occur together but independently.
Describe the Schachter Theory.
A theory of emotion that argues that the cognitive interpretation, or appraisal, of a body reaction creates the subjective experience of emotion.
Define social psychology.
The study of how people think about, influence, and relate to other people.
Define social cognition
The study of how people use cognitive processes- such as perception, memory, thought, and emotion- to make sense of other people as well as themselves.
What is the first factor that influence the impressions we form about people?
physical appearance
Define social schema.
A general knowledge structure, stored in long-term memory, that relates to social experiences or people.
Define sterotypes.
The collection of beliefs and impressions held about a group and its memebers; common stereotypes include those based on gender, race, and age.
What is the central problem with stereotypes?
They lead us to judge individuals on the basis of our expectations about the group they belong to.
Describe prototype theories of stereotypes.
We strore abstract representations of the tyical features of a group; we then judge particular individuals based on their simularity to the prototype.
Describe exemplar theories of sterotypes.
We store memories of particular individuals, or exemplars, and these individual memories form the basis for sterotypes.
When are sterotypes especially likely to be activated?
When we have recently been exposed to sterotypic actions or beliefs.
Describe the self-fulfilling prophecy effect
When our expectations about the actions of another person actually lead that person to behave in the expected way.
Define prejudice
An unrealistic negative evaluation of a group and its members.
Define discrimination
Behaving in an unfair way toward members of another group
Define out-group
A group of individuals that you do not belong to or identify with
Define in-group
A group that you belong to or identify with
Describe ethnocentrism
the tendancy to evaluate your own group more positively than others
Describe the personal/group discrimination discrepancy
The tendancy for members of groups experiencing discrimination to minimize discrimination directed toward themselves as individuals, but to agree with other group members that discrmination against the groupa s a while is significant.
Deifne auto-stereotyping
A belief system about discrimination that is widely shared by group members.
Deifne meta-stereotyping
A person's beliefs regarding the sterotype that out-group members hold about his or her own group.
Define attributions
The inference processes people use to assign cause and effect to behaviour.
Describe the covariation model of attribution
To figure out why somebody's mood changes at a specifc time, you look for a factor that occurs at the same time, or covaries, with the bevaiour change.
What other pieces of information do we rtely on according to the covariation model of attribution to help us make to appropriate inference?
-consistency
-distinctiveness
-consensus
Define external attribution
Attributing the cause of a person's baheaviour to an external event or situation in the environment
Define internal attribution
Attributing the cause of a person's behaviour to an internal personality characterisitic
How does covariant information differ and cause us to assign external or internal attribution?
External- high consistency, high distinctiveness, high consensus
Interanl-high consistency, low distincitveness, low concensus
Describe the fundamental attribution error
The fact the causal attributions tend to overestimate the influence of internal personal factors and underestimate the role of situational factors.
Describe the actor-observer effect
The tendancy to attribute others' behaviour to internal forces and our own bahaviour to external forces.
Describe the self-serving bias
The tendancy to make internal attributions about our own bahaviour when the outcome is positive and to blame the situation when our behaviour leads to something negative.
Describe how biases can be adaptive and also have a downside.
They allow us to make quick decisions about the causes of bahaviour and make us feel more comfortable about ourselves and the world as a whole. However, they can sometimes lead to incorrect conclusions.
How is self-deception a good and a bad thing?
Boosts self-esteem so increase chance of being successful but also inmepede us from learning from failures.
Does the classification of in-groups and out-groups have an evolutionary basis? Why might this be?
It may, because it helps us determin if strangers sre likely to help or harm us.
Define attitude.
A positive or negative evalutation of belief helpd about something, which in turn may affect behaviour; are typically broken down into cognivitve, affective, and behavioural components.
What do the different componenets of attitude represent?
1.)cognitive- what people know or believe about the object of their attitude
2.)the feelings that the object engenders
3.)predisposition to act toward to object in a particular way
What is the single most important factor affecting attitude formation?
Direct positive or negative experience with an attitude target.
What is the elabortaion liklihood model?
A popular theory about attitude change which suggests that 2 primary routes to persuasion exist: one that is central and one that is peripheral.
Define cognitive dissonance
The tension produced when people act in a way that is inconc=sistent with their attitudes; attitude change may occur as a result of attempting to reduce cognitive dissonance.
Describe self-perception theory
The idea hat people who ise observations of their own behaviour as a basis for inferring their internal beliefs.
Define social influence
The study of how the behaviours and thoughts of individuals are affected by the presence of others.
Define social facilitation
The enhancement in performance that is sometimes found when an individual performs in the presence of others
Deifne social impairment
The impairment in performance that is sometimes found when an individual performs in the presence of others
Describe the bystander effect.
The reluctance to come to the aid of a person in need when other people are present.
Describe diffusion of responsibilty
The idea that when people know, or think, that others are present in a situation, the allow their sense of responsibilty for action to diffuse, or spread out widely, among those who are present.
Deifne social loafing
The tendancy to put out less effort when several people are supposed to be working on a task than when only one is working
Define deindividuation
The loss of individualoity or depersonalization, that comes from being in a group.
Define conformity
The tendancy to go along with the wishes of the group; when people conform, their opinions, feelings, and behaviours generally start to move toward the group norm.
What is a downside to conformity?
The group doesn;t always do the right thing, eg. smokng, racism, shoplifting, violence, etc.
What are two important characteristics of group decision making?
group polarization and groupthink
Describ group polarization
The tendancy for a group's dominant point of view to become stronger and more extreme with time
Describe groupthink
The tendancy for members of a group to become so interested in seeking a consensus of opinion that they start to ignore and even supress dissenting views
Deifne obedience
The form of compliance that occurs when people respond to the orders of an authority figure
Describe the Milgram experiment
"teachers" were instruced to shock the learners when they were wrong and it was to see whether they would obey the researcher even when they could hear the learner protesting in pain
What were the results of the Milgram experiment?
65% (26 of the 40) of the 40 participants were willing to deliver shocks up to 450V, and no participant quit before the pounding on the wall started
What affected the obedience of participants in the Milgram experiemnt?
How close the experimenter was and how "official" he appeared,
What do people tend to find more attractive in a human face?
"average" faces (average or normal characteristics rend to be preferred over the extreme ones)
What can change how attractive we rate other people?
experience (we rate people that we like as more attractive) and comparisons (if we've just seen a very attrative person, our rating of an average erson will go down)
What factor determine who we form realtionshops with?
proximity, similarity, reciprocity
Define reciprocity
The tendancy for people to return in kind the feelings that are shown toward them
Why might people prefer to form relationships with people who are similar to them?
Because if they share the same beliefs it validates our beliefs or maybe we dislike thos with other beliefs so we don't want to spend time with them
Define ingratiation
The attemt to get someone to like you for some alterior motive
How does oue gerneral level of arousal affect how attrative we find others and describe an experiment that showed this
We can misattribute arousal from one source as sexual attraction to someone nearby. The Capilan Suspension Bridge study showed that men were more likely to ask a femal interviewer out after crossing a scary bridge.
Define compassionate love
An intense emotional state characterized by a powerful longing to be with a specific person; marked by a combination of intimacy and passion, but committment may be lacking
Define companionate love
A kind of emotional attachment characterized by feelings of trust and companionship; marked by a comination of intimacy and commitment but passion may be lacking
How do men and women typically differ in their feelings for their lover and friends?
Women tend to report loving their partner more bu liking their friends more and men tend to repot liking and loving their partner more
According to Stenberg, what are the three major dimensions of love?
intimacy, passion and committment
What dimensions are present in infatuated love?
passion
What dimensions are present in liking (friendship)?
intimacy
What dimensions are present in empty love?
committment
What dimensions are present in romantic love?
intimacy and passion
What dimensions are present in companionat love?
intimacy and committment
What dimensions are present in fatouous love?
committment and passion
What dimensions are present in consummate love?
committment, passion, and intimacy
List the 7 different types of love.
infatuated love, liking, empty love, romantic love, companionate love, fatuous love, consummate love
How do the components of lvoe tend to change with time?
Passion seems to develop quickly but is difficult to sustain for long periods, committment and intimacy are slower to develop but can be quite long-lasting.
When lovers and their rooates were asked to predict how long the realtionship will last, who was more accurate in their predictions?
Their roomates
Define aggression
behaviour meant to harm someone
How do learning theories explain aggression?
Agression is learned thorugh recieving repeated rewards for aggressive behaviour.
How do cognitive-behavioural theories explain agression?
Agression is learned by watching others behav aggressively
How do evolutionary theories explain aggression?
Aggression was an adaptive behaviour- especially for males- that was selected into our gene pool because it led to successful reproduction
How do humanistic psychologsts explain aggression?
It results form society's perversion of the naturall good selves that we are born with
Describe sex difference in aggression
Males show higher physical aggression and some studies show higher verbal aggression in females
Define abnormal behaviour and psychological disorder.
Abnormal behaviour refers to an observed problem behaviour and the term psychological disorder refers to the underlying psychological problem
Define statistical deviance criterion
A criterion for abnormality based on a low frequency of occurance among the members of a population
Define cutural deviance criterion
Behaviour is abnormal if it violates the rules or accepted standards of society
Define emotional distress criterion
Behaviour is abnormal if it regularly leads to personal distress or emotional upset
Deifne dysfunction criterion
Behaviour is abnormal if it interferes with the ability to pursues daily activiies, such as work and relationships
List the various criteria used to define abnormal behaviour.
statistical deviance, cultural deviance, personal or emotional distress, and dysfunction
Describe the medical model of abnormal behaviour
The view that abnormal behaviour is symptomatic of an underlying "disease" that can be "cured" with the appropriate therapy
Descirbe the socilogical model of abnormal behaviour
The view that abnormality is a label that each society assigns to behaviours that it finds unacceptable, even i fthe behaviours are not criminal in nature
Define DSM-IV
The Diagnostic and Statitstical Manual of Mental Disorders, which is used for the diagnosis and classification of psychological disorders; comprises five major rating dimensions, called axes
Descirbe the different axes in the DSM-IV.
axis I-clinical disorders
axis II- personality disorders
axis III- any medical conditions that the patient may have
axisIV-any environmental or psychological problems that may be present
axis V-the individual's current level of adaptive or global function
Define anxiety disorders
A class of disorders marked by excessive apprehension and worry that in turn impairs normal functioning
Define generalized anxiety disorder
Excessive worrying, or free-floating anxiety, that lasts for at least six months and cannot be attributed to any single identifiable source
List some common anxiety disorders.
generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, and specific phobias
Define panic disorder
A condition marked by recurrent discrete episodes or attacks of extremely intense fear or dread
Define agoraphobia
An anxiety disorder that causes an individual to restrict his or her normal activities; someone who has agoraphobia tends to avoid public places out of fear that a panic attack will occur
Define obsessive-compulsive disorder
An anxiety disorder that manifests itself through persistent and uncontrollable thoughts, called obsessions, or by the compelling need to perform repetitive acts, called compulsions.
Define social phobia
An incapacitating fear of social situations
Define specific phobia disorder
A highly focused fear of a specific object or situation
Define somatoform disorders.
Psychological disorders that focus on the physical body
List three somatoform disorders
hypochondriasis, somatization disorder, and conversion disorder
Define hypochondriasis
A long-lasting preoccupation with the idea that one has developed a serious disease, based on what turns out to be a misinterpretation of normal body reactions
Deifne somatization disorder
A long-lasting preoccupation with body symptoms that have no identifiable physical cause.
Describe the major differences between hpochondriases and somatization disorder.
In hypochondriases the anxiety rises becasue of a presumed underlying disease, whereas in somatization disorder the presence of the symptoms themselves casue the disorder
Define conversion disorder
The presence of real physical problems, such as blindness or paralysis, that seem to have no identifiable physical cause.
Define dissociative disorders
A class of disorders characterized by the separation, or dissociation, of conscious awareness from previous thoughts or memories
List three types of dissociative disorders.
dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, dissociative identity disorder
Define dissociative amnesia
A psychological disorder characterized by an inability to remember important information
Deifne dissociative fugue
A loss of personal identity that is often accompanied by a flight from home
Deifne dissociative identity disorder
A condition in which an individual alternates between what appear to be two or more distinct personalities or identities (also known as multiple personality disorder)
What disorder do not all psychologist agree on that is in the DSM-IV?
dissociative identity disorder
Define mood disorders
Prolonged and disabling disruptions in emotional state
What are the two main varieties of mood disorders
depressive disorders (person experiences mainly depression) and bipolar disorders (mood swings between extreme highs and lows)
Define a major depressive episode
A type of mood disrder characterized by depressed mood and other symptoms
Deifne bipolar disorder
A type of mood disorder in which the person experiences disordered modd shifts in two directions- from depression to a manic state
Define manic state
A disordereed state in which the person becomes hyperative, talkative, and has a decreased need for sleep; a person in a manic state may engage in activities that are self-destructive or dangerous
What percentage of individuals with bipolar disorder end up comitting suicide?
19%
What is the third leading cause of death among adolescents ad the eighth leading cause of death overall?
suicide
How much more likely are men to commit suicide than women?
four to five times more likely
are men or women more likley to attempt suicide?
women (but they often use non-lethal methods)
It is estimated that what % of people who kill themselves have some sort of psychological disorder?
more than 90%
Define schizophrenia
A class of disorders characterized by fundamental disturbances in thought processes, emotion or behaviour
List some positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia
positive symptoms- delusions or hallucinations
negative symptoms-reduced interest in life and diminshed ability to express emotion
Define personality disorders
Chronic or enduring patterns of behaviour that lead to significant impairments in social functioning
Describe paranoid personality disorder
A personality disorder characterized by pervasive distrust of others
Describe dependent personality disorder
A personality disorder characterized by an excessive and persistent need to be taken care of by others
Describe antisocial personality disorder
A personality disorder characterized by repeated criminal behaviour and a failure to learn from punishment
Define psycopathy
An alternative construct to teh antisocial personality disorder; as well as criminal tendancies, it focuses on the underlying personality traits of manipulation, callousness, and impulsive thrill-seeking
Describe perfectionisitic personality disorder
A personality disorder characterized by an excessive and rigid need to ahieve the highest level of quality in achievements
What is the PCL-R and who eveloped it?
Psycopathy checklist revised developed by Robert Hare. A trained assesser completes a 20-item rating scale based in a semi-structured interview nad detailed information from files (it is a standard instrument for assessing psychopathy)
t are some new ideas that may be psychological disorders that have not yet been added to the DSM-IV?
cult membership and internet addiction
Describe the bio-psycho-social perspective
The idea that psychological disorders are influenced, or caused by a combination of biological, psychological (cognitive), and social (environemental) factors
t are some new ideas that may be psychological disorders that have not yet been added to the DSM-IV?
cult membership and internet addiction
Describe the bio-psycho-social perspective
The idea that psychological disorders are influenced, or caused by a combination of biological, psychological (cognitive), and social (environemental) factors
What might schizophreni be linked to in relation to neurotransmitters?
An excess supply of dopamine or possibly an interation between dopamin and serotonin.
What is one of the most effective treatmentds foe schizophrenia?
Medications that act as dopamine antagonists (reduce or block dopamine use in the brain)
What biological facrtors may explain psychological disorders?
neirotransmitter imbalances, structural problems, genetic contributions.
What do people with schizoprenia tend to show differences in in thier brains structure.
Larger ventricles, also activity in frontal areas of brain may be abnormally low
What evidence supports that schizophrenia is partly genetic?
Your chances of having it increase if a family members has it and are 1 in 2 if your identical twiin has it
How is a person prone to depression likely to explain when something bad happens to them?
They are likely to explain it in terms of internal, stable, and global attributions
Define learned helplessness
A general sense of helplessness that is acquired when people repeatedly fail in their attempts to control their environment; learned helplessness may play a role in depression
Define psychotherapy
Treatment designed to help people deal with mentsl, emotional, or behavioural problems
What makes treatment for psychological disorders so challenging?
What works for one patient may not work for another.
What are the three main treatment options for psychotherapy to consider?
treating the body, treating the mind, treating the environment
Define biomedical therapies
Biologically based treatments, including drug therapies, shock treatments, and, very rarely, psychsurgery
What are antipsychotic drugs?
Medications that reduce the positive symptoms of schizophrenia; the majority act on the neurotransmitter dopamine
What are some drawbacks to drugs used to treat psychological disorders?
They don't wrok for everybody and some can have disturbing side effects.
How did the number of poeple instututionalized for psychological disoreder change from 1950s to the 1980s? What is responsible for this?
It dropped to less then 25% of what it had been in the 1950s due to effective medications, improvement in alternate forms of therapy, cutbacks in governement funding needed to maintain adequate institutional care,a dn stricter laws governing committment.
List some of the side effects of antipsychotic drugs used to treat schizophrenia.
drowsiness, dificulty concentrating, blurry vision and movement disorders. One particularly serious side effect is tardive dyskinesia which produces disbaing involuntary movements of the mouth and face.
Define antidepressant drugs
Medications that moderate the availability or effectiveness of the nerotransmitters implicated in mood disorders; Prozac for exampl, increased the action of the neurotransmitter serotonin.
Describe 2 different types of antidepressnt drugs.
1.) tricyclics- act on norepinephrine, allowing it to linger in synapses loger than usual
2.) selective serotonin reuptake inhibiters- block reuptake of serotonin
How is bipolar disoreder treated with drugs?
By administering a common salt called lithium carbonate
Define antianxiety drugs
Medications that reduce tension and anxiety, many work on the inhibitory neurotransmittter GABA
What are some of the side effects of antianxiety drugs?
Drowsinees, impaired motor coordination,and possible psychological dependence
Define electroconvulsice therapy (ECT)
A treatment used primarily for depression in which a brief electric current is delivered to the brain
When is ECT used?
As a last resort, when the patiet has not responded to any other treatment (it is succeful 50-70% of the time in lessening the symptoms of depression in patienst who showed no response to ny other treatment)
Whay is the used of ECT so controversial?
Nobody know why it works, it produces side effects of confusion and a loss of memeory for events surrounding the treatment, similar to how people are executed
Describe insight therapies
Treatments designed to give clients self-knowledge, or insight, into their psychological problems, usually through one-on-one interactions with a therapist
What are three approaches to insight therapy?
Psychoanalysis, cognitive therapies,a nd humanistic approaches
Describe psychoanlysis.
Freud's method of treatment that attempts to bring hidden impulses and memories, which are locked in the unconscious, to the surface or awareness, thereby freeing the patient from disordered thoughts and behaviours/
Describe free association
A technique used in psychoanlysis to explore the contents of the unconscious; patients are asked to relaxand freely express whatever thoughts and feelins happen to come into their minds.
Dexcribe dream analysis
A techniques used in psychoanlysis; Freid believed that dreams are symbolic and contain important information about the unconscious
Define resistance
In psychoanlysis, a patient's unconsciously motivated attempts to subvert the process of therapy
Define transference
In psychoanalysis, the patient's expression of thoughts and feelings toward the therapist that are actually representative of the way the patient feels about other significant people in his or her life
Describe cognitive therapies
Treatments designed to remove irrational beliefs and negative thoughts that are presumed to be responsible for psychological disorders
Describe rational-emotive therapy
A form of cognitive therapy, developed by Alert Ellis, in which the therapists acts as a kind of cross-examiner, verblly disputing the client's irrational though process
Describe Beck's cognitive therapy
The therapists acts as an advisor, or co-investigator, helping clients discover their own unique kinds of faulty beliefs
Describe Humanisitic therapy
Treatments designed to help clients gain insight into their fundamental self-worth and value as human beings; therapy is a process of discovering our own unique potential
Describe client-centered therapy
A form of humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, proposing tht it is the client, not the therapist, who holds the key to psychological health and happiness; therapist's role is to provide genuineness, unconditional positive regard, and empathy
Besides client-centered therapy, what is another form of humanistic therapy?
Gestalt therapy- the approach is far less gentle and non-directive than client-centered therapy. The clients is actively encouraged, even forced, to express their feelings openly.
Besides client centered therapy ans Gestalt therapy, what is another form of humanistic therapy?
existentail therapies-existential therapists believe that psychological problems orginiate from the anxietites created by personal choices, such as whether to stay in school, get married, or a quit a job
Define group therapy
A form of therapy in which several people are treated simultabeousy in the same setting
What are some of the advantages to group therapy?
-more cost effective
-hearing other peoples thoughts that match your own can be educational
-helps you realize that you aren't alone
Describe family therapy
A form of group therapy in which the thrapist treats the family as a whole, as a kind of social system; the goals of the treatment are often to improve interpersonal communication and collaboration
Describe behavioural therapies
Treatments designed to change behaviour through the use of established learning techniques
Define systematic desensitization
A technique that uses counterconditioning and extinction to reduce the fear and anxiety that have become associated with a specific object or event; a multistep process that attempts to replace the negative learned association with something relaxing
Define aversion therapy
A treastment for replacing a positive reaction to a harmful stimulus, such as alcohol, with something negative, such as feeling nauseated
Define token economy
A type of bahavioural therapy in which institutioanlized patients are rewarded with small tokens when they act in an appropriate way; tokens can then be exchanged for certain privelages
Define meta-analysis
A statistical tchnique used to summarize findings across all available studies; comparisons are based on some common evaluation index, such as the numerical difference between the success rate of the treatment and control conditions
Deifne spontaneous remission
Improvement in a psycholgical disorder without treatment-that is, simply as a function of the passage of time
Define empirically supported treatments
Treatment that have been shown, based on extensive and well-validated research, to be effective in treating specific psychological disorders and problems
What are the three main categories of common factors across therapies?
support facotrs, learning factors, and action factors
Define therapeutic alliance
The bond formed between the client and the therapist in successful psychotherapy that is focused on working together constructively to solve the client's problem
Define service gap
The difference between the number of people who could benefit from receiving psychological services and those who receive them
Define health psychology
The study of how biological, psychological, environmental, and cultural factors are involved in physical health and the prevention of illness
Define stress
People\s physical and psychological reactions to demanding or threatening situations
Define stressors
The demanding or threatening situations that produce stress
Define general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
Hans Selye's model of stress as a general, nonspecific reaction that occurs in three phases: alarm reaction, resistance, and exhaustion
Are the psychological consequences of stress always negative?
No
Give an example of a positive consequence of frequent illnesses.
People who had frequent illnesses were found to be more empathetic toward others and more tolerant of uncertainty.
Describe the different responses to stress seen in males and females.
Males show typical flight or fight response and females tend to show "tending and befriending" behaviours (to protect their offspring)
Define cognitive appraisal
The idea that to feel stress you need to percieve a threat and come to the conclusion that you may not have adaptive resources to deal with that threat
What are the four major classes of external stressors?
Significant life events, physical pain, daily hassels, and other factors in the envornment.
Define environmental psychology
A specialty area in psychology devoted to the study of environmental effects, such as crowding or noise, on behaviour and health.
Give examples of environemntal stressors
noise and crowding
Define hardy personality
The set of traits, attitudes, and skills that make and individual less vulnerable to stress
Define percieved control
The amount of influence you feel you have over a situation and your reaction to it
What three adaptive personality traits, attidutes, and skills help people resist stress
perceived control, explanatory style, and personality characterisitcs
Define type A pattern
An enduring pattern of behaviour linked to coronary heart disease; the tendancy to be hard-driving, ambituous, easily annoyed, and impatient all seem to derive from the trait of hostility
Deifne typ B pattern
People who lack the type A traits-they experience less stress and therefore better hralth outcomes
How mcuh more likly are people with type A personalities to develop coronary heart problems?
twice as likely
What trait is most determinant of your risk for heart disease?
Overall level of hostility
Define lymphocytes.
Specialized white blood cells that have the job of attacking foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria.
How can stress increase a person's chance of developing disease?
By interfering with white blood cell's ability to eliminate foreign substances that have invaded the body
How can stress increase chances of cardiovascular disease?
It increases cholesterol levels and blood presssure.
Define post-traumatic stress disorder
A trauma-based anxiety disorder characterized by flashbacks, avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event, and chronic arousal symptoms
Compare the likelihood of men vs women to develop post-traumatic stress disorder
women are 5 times more likley to develop post-traumaitc stress disorder following a traumatic event
How is post traumatic stress disorder diagnosed?
When the following three types of symptoms occur for a period lasting longer then one month:
1.)flashbacks
2.)avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma
3.)chronic arousal symptoms
Deifne burnout
A state of physical, mental, and emotional exhaustion created by long-term involvement in an emotionally demanding situation
Who does burnout seem to happen in most often and why might it occur?
In highly motivated individualsnperhaps because of a loss of control or meaning in life
Deifne coping
Efforts to manage or master conditions of threat or demand that tax resources
List three coping mechanisms
relaxtion techniques, using social support networks, and reappraising the environment in a less threatening way
Define biofeedback
Specific physiological feedback that people are given about the effectiveness of their relaxation efforts
How does biofeedback contribute to our ability to reduce our stress?
If we are shown feedback that wsay out efforts are working, we are better able to control our physiological response.
What are some of the benefits of aerobic exercise physically?
Improves cardiovascular fitness and on average increases the chances that you will live longer.
How does aerobic exercise affect us psychologically?
It improves mood and makes people more resistant to the effects of stressors.
What may be a sufficient amount of exercise to improve mood?
30 mins a day
How might exercise improve mood?
It increases the amount of oxygen going to the brain which increases cognitive functioning, and sustained exercise may alter mood-inducing neurotransmitters in the brain
About what % of Candians over 12 smoke?
about 25%
How many Canadians drink alcohol at least once per month?
More than half
How has the number of people who smoke changed over the past two or three decades?
it has decreased
How has the number of adults and adolescent who drink changed over the past couple of decades?
Number of adults has decreased but the number of adolescents who drink to excess is increasing
What % of 12-18 years olds asked had participated in binge drinking at least once in th epast month?
more than 40%
Compare the liklihood of Aboriginal Candians and other Canadians for developing alcohol problems.
Aboriginal Canadians are at a six times greater risk
How does alcohol affect our body physically?
it is a depressant so it slows down the nervous system which may cause drowsiness, induce sleep or relieve pain
Define alcohol myopia
A state induced by alcohol intoxication that results in more extreme social behaviours
Describe primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention
-primary prevention-designed to educate the public as a whole in ways to reduce or eliminate a problem before it starts
-secondary prevention-early identification of risk factors in specific population groups
-tertiary prevention-handle and contain illness or habit once it has been acquired
What is AIDS?
Accute Immune Deficiency Syndrome, a disease that gradually weakens and disables the immune system
How do psycholgists play a role in AIDS and HIV infection prevention and handling?
The only effective way to prevent the soread is to prevent risk taking behaviour and they also play a theropeutic role with those who have contracted STDs
Why do student between the ages of 16 and 24 report not using condoms?
embarassed about purchaisng them, difficulty discussing it with theri partner, believed condoms interferred with sexual pleasure, already used oral contraceptives
What types of interventions are most effective at preventing unsafe sexual behaviours?
abstinecen and safer-sex interventions can both reduce unsafe sexual behaviours, but safer-sex interventions may have longer lasting effects