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153 Cards in this Set

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learning
any relative durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience
Conditioning
involves learning associations between events that ocurr in an organisms environment (ex. eating chicken and having success in hitting a homerun)
immunosupression
decrease of the production of antibodies
Process of classical conditioning
before conditioning: UCS(meat powder) elicts UCR(salivation) but NS does not(tone)
during conditioning: NS(tone) is paired with the UCS(meat powder)
After conditioning: NS(tone) alone elicits the response; the NS is now a conditioned stimulus(tone) and the response to it is now a CR( salivation)
*summary*- an originally neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response that it did not previously elicit ( aka the tone did not previously elicit the salivation)
Affects of classical conditioning
- allergic reactions, contributes to growth of drug tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, sexual arousal increased sperm release
Aquisition
refers to the intial stage of learning something
stimulus contiguity
- idea posed by pavlov
- the ocurrence of stimuli together in time and space
extinction
grafual weakening and dissapearance of a conditioned response tendancy
spontaneous recovery
reappearance of the extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to conditioned stimulus
stimulus generalization
ocurrs when an organism that has learned a reponse to a specific stimulus reponds in the same way to a new stimuli that are similiar to original stimulus
( ex. woman who aquired a bridge phobia during childhood because dad scared her whenever they went over a particular old bridge = original fear was for that particular bridge but it later became generalized to all bridges)
stimulus discrimination
ocurrs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond to the same way to new stimulus that are similiar to the original one( ex. dog may get excited and run around when he sees our car pull up and at first act the same way towards all card - later will able to discriminate between your car and others)
higher order conditioning
when a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus( ex. driver tendancy to react to police cars with anxiety even if they are driving under the speed limit/a reflective response)
operant conditioning/instrumental learning
a form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences
- governs voluntary responses
law of effect
if a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects, the association between the stimuls and the response is heightened
reinforcement
when an event following a response increases an organism's tendancy to make that response ( ex. go to work so you can earn money)
operant chamber/skinner box
small enclosure in which an an animal can make a specific response that is recorded while the consequences of the response are systematically controlled
reinforcement contingencies
circumstances/rules that determine whether responses lead to the presenttation of reinforces
cumulative recorder
creates a graohic record of responding and reinfrcement in a skinner box as a function of time( when there is no response the pen stays still and makes a horizontal line,moves when there is a response)
- rapid response rate = produces a steep slop
- d;pe response rate = produces a shallow slope
shaping
reinforcement of closer and closer aproximations of a desired response
resistance to extinction
organism continues to make a response after delivery of the reinforcer has been terminated( ex. parents would like to see their children's study habits continue even if their efforts don't lead to a reinforcement all the time( good grades)
discriminative stimuli
cues that influence operant behavior by indicating the probable consequences (reinforcement or nonreinforcement) of a response)
ex. birds learn that hunting for worms is likely to be reinforced after a rain/kids learn to ask for sweets when parents are in a good mood
primary reinforces
events that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs
ex. food, water, etc.
secondary/conditioned reinforcers
events that aquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers
ex. money, good grades, attention, flattery, applause
continuous reinforcement
when every instance of a designated response is reinforced
intermittet/partial reinforcement
designated response is reinforced only some of the time
fixed ration schedule
reinforcer is given after a fixed number of reinforced responses
ex. a rat is reinforced after every tenth lever presses
variable ratio schedule
reinforcer is given after a variable number of non-reinforced reponses
ex. a rat is reinforced after every tenth lever press on average
fixed interval schedule
reinforcer is given for the first response that ocurrs after a fixed time interval has elapsed
ex. a rat is reinforcd for the first lever press after a 2 min. interval has elapsed and then must wait another 2 min. before being able to earn the next reinforcement
variable interval schedule
reinfrocer is given for the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed
ex. a rat is reinforced for the first lever press after a 1 min. interval has elapsed, but the following intervals are 3, 2 , 4 with an average length of 2 min.
positive reinfrocement
ocurrs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding stimulus
negative reinforcement
when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the removal of an aversive(unpleasant) stimulus
escape learning
an organism aquired a response that decreses or ends some unpleasant stimulation
avoidance learning
when an organims aquires a response that prevents some unpleasant stimulation from ocurring
punishment
ocurrs when an event following a response weakens the tendancy to make that response
instinctive drift
ocurrs wen an organism's innate response tendencies interfere with conditioning responses
latent learning
- freud
-learning that is not apparent from behavior when it first ocurrs
observational learning
when an org.'s reponding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models
* imp. processes that are invoved in this: attention, retention, reproduction, motivation
behavioral contract
written agreement outlining a promise to adhere to the contingencies of a behavior modification program
three key proccesses involved in memory
-encoding= forming a memory code ( involves attention/how something may look/sound/mean)
-storage=maintaining encoded info in memory over time
-retrieval=recovering info from memory storage
attention
focusing awareness on a narrowed range of small stimuli or events
Levels-of-processing theory
proposes that deeper levels of processing result in a longer lasting memory code
Elaboration
linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding
Self-referent encoding
involves deciding how or whether info is personally relevant
Sensory memory
-preserves info in its original sensory form for a brief time
-allows visual pattern,sound, or touch to linger for a brief moment after the stimulation is over
short term memory
limited capacity store that can maintain inrehearsed info for up to 20 seconds
rehearsal
the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the info
Chunk
a group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit
long-term memory
an unlimited capacirt store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time
flashbulb memories
unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events
conceptual hierarchy
multilevel classification system based on common properties of items
semantic network
consists of nodes representing concepts, joined together by pathways that link related concepts
connectionist or parallel distributed processing models
assume that cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational networks that resemble neural networks
tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
the temporary inability to remember something you know, accompanied by a feeling that its just out of reach
misinformation effect
ocurrs when participants recall of an event they witnessed is altered by introducing misleading postevent information
source monitoring
involves making attributions about the origins of memories
source monitoring error
ocurrs when a memory derived from one source is misattributed to another source
reality monitoring
refers to the process of deciding whether memories are based on external sources( ones perception of events) or internal sources(ones thoughts and imaginations)
nonsense syllables
consonant-vowel-consonant arrangements that do not correspond to words
retention
refers to the proportion of material retained/remembered
recall
measure of retention requires subjects to reproduce info on their own without any cues
recognition
measure of retention requires subjects to select previously learned info from an array of options
relearning
measure of retention requires subject to memorize info a second time to determine how much time or how many practice trials are save by having learned it before
interference theory
proposes that people forget info because of competition fom other material
retroactive interference
ocurrs when new information impairs the retention of previously learned informtion
proactive interference
when previously learned information interferenes with the retention of new information
encoding specificity principle
the value of retrieval cue depends on how well it corresponds to the memory code
transfer-appropriate pocessing
ocurrs when the intial processing of information is similar to the type of processing required by the subsequent meaure of retention
repression
refers to keeping distressing thoughts and feeling buried in the unconscious
long term potentiation
longlasting increase in neural excitability at synapses along a specific neural pathway
retrograde amnesia
invovles the loss of memories for events that ocurred prior to the onset of amnesia
aterograde amnesia
loss of memroies for events that ocurr after the onset of amnesia
consolidation
hypothetical process involving the gradual conversion of information into durable memory codes stored in long term memory
declarative memory system
handles factual information
nondeclarative memory system
houses memory for actions, skills, conditioned responses, and emotional responses
episodic memory system
made up of chronological/temporally dates recollectino of personal experiences
semantic memory system
contains general knowledge that is not tied to the time when the information was learned
prospective memory
involves remembering to perform actions in the future
retrospective memory
involves remembering events from teh past of previously learned information
link method
involves forming a mental image of items to be remembered in a way that links them together
method of loci
involves taking an imaginary walk along a familiar path where images of items to be remembered are associated with certain locations
language
consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combining those symbols, that can be used to generate an infinite variety of messages
phonemes
smallest speech units in a language that can be distinguished
morphemes
smallest units of meaning in a language
semantics
the area of language concerned with understanding the meaning of words and word combinations
syntax
a system of rules that specify how words can be arranged into sentences
fast mapping
process by which children map a word onto an underlying concept after only one exposure
overextension
when a child incorrectly uses a word to describe a wider set of objects or actions that it is meant to
underextensions
when a child incorrectly uses a word to describe a narrower set of objects or actions than it is mean to
telegraphic speech
consists mainly of content words; articles, prepositions, and other less critical words omitted
ex. "give doll" v. "please give me the doll"
mean length of uterance
average length of youngsters spoken statements(measured in morphemes)
overregularizations
when grammatical rules are incorectly generalized to irregular cases when they do not apply
e. " the girl goed home"
metalinguistic awareness
ability to reflect on the use of language
bilingualism
aquisition of two languages that use diff. speech sounds , vocab., and grammatical rules
acculturation
the degree to which a person is socially and psychologically integrated into a new culture
language aquisition device
innate mechanism or process that facilitates the learning of language
linguistic relativity
hypothesis that one's language determines the nature of ones thought
problem solving
refers to active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goal that is not readily attainable
functional fixedness
tendency to percieve an item only in terms of its most common use
mental set
exists when people persist in using problem solving strategies that have worked in the past
insight
ocurrs when people suddenly discover the correct solution to a problem after struggeling with it for a while
problem space
to refer to the set of possible pathways to a solution considered by the problem solver
trial an error
involves trying possible solutions and discarding those that are in error until one works
algorithm
a methodical, steo-by-step procedure for trying all possible alternatives in searching for a solution to a problem
heuristic
guiding principle/rule of thumb used in solving problems or making decisions
field dependence-independence
refers to individuals' tendency to rely primarily on external versus internal frames of reference when orienting themselves in space
decision making
involves evaluating alternatives and making choices among them
theory of bounded rationality
asserts that people tend to use simple strategies in decision making that focus on only a few facets of available options and often result in irrational decisions that are less optimal
availability heuristic
involves basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with which relevant instances come to mind
representativeness heuristic
involves basing the estimated probability of an event on how similar it is to the typical prototype of that event
conjunction fallacy
ocurrs when people estimate that the odds of two uncertain events happening together are geater than the odds of either event happening alone
alternative outome effect
ocurrs when people's belief about whether an outcome will ocurr changes depending on how alternative outcomes are distributed, even though the summed probablility of the alternative outcome is held constant
framing
how decision issues are posed or how choices are structured
psychological test
standardized measure of a sample of a persons behavior
intellegence tests
measure general mental ability
aptitude tests
assess specific types of mental abilities
achievement tests
guage a persons mastery and knowlege of various subjects
personality tests
neasure various aspects of personality, including motvies, interests, values, attitudes
standardization
refers to the uniform procedures used in the administration and scoring of a test
test norms
provide info about where a score on a psych test ranks in relation to other scores on that test
percentile score
indicates percentage of people who score at or below the score one has obtained
reliability
measurement consistency of a test
correlation coefficient
numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables
content validity
refers to the degree to which the content of a test is representative of the domain its supposed to cover
critieron related validity
estimated by correlating subjects scores on a test with their scores on an independant critieron of the trat assessed by the test
construct validity
the extent to which the evidence shows that a test measures a particular hypothetical construct
mental age
indicates that he or she displayed the mental ability typical of a child of that chronological age
intellegence quotient
(IQ) is a childs mental age divided by chronological age multiplied by 100
normal distribution
symetric, bell-shaped curve that represents the pattern in which many characteristics are dispersed in the population
deviation IQ scores
locate subjects precisely within the normal distribution, using the standard deviation as the unit of measurement
mental retardation
refers to subaverage general mental ability accompanied by deficiencies in adaptive skills, originating before age 18
reaction range
refers to the genetically deermined limits on an IQ
gardner's 8 principals
logical mathematical, linguistic, musical, spatial, bodily kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist
convergent thinking
one tries to narrow down a list of alternatives to onverge on a single correct answer
divergent thinking
one tries to expand the range of alternatives by generating many possible solutions
motivation
involves goal-directed behavior
homeostasis
a state of psychological stability
drive
internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce this tension
incentive
an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behavior
glucose
a simple sugar that is an important source of energy
glucostats
neurons sensitive to glucose in the surrounding fluid
body mass index
weight(in kilogram) divided byheight(in meters) squared
-kg/m2
setpoint theory
proposes that the body monitors fat cell levels to keep them and weight fairly stable
settling-point theory
roposes that weight tends to driftthe around the level at whch teh constellation of factors that determine food consumption and energy expenditure achieve an equilibrium
estrogens
the principal lass of gonadal hormones in females
androgens
principal class of gonadal ormones in males
parental investment
refers tow hat each sex has to invest-in terms of time, energy, survival risk, and forgone opportunities-to produce and nurture offspring
sexual orientation
refers to a person's preference for emotional and sexual relationships with individuals of the same sex, the other sex, or either
refactory period
time following orgasm during which maes are largely unresponsive to further stimulation
achievement motive
the need to master difficult challenges, to outperform others, and to meet igh standards of excellence
emotion
involves a subjective conscious experience accompanied by bodily arousal and by characteristic over expressions
galvanic skin response
an increase in the electrical conductivity of the skin that ocurrs when sweat glands increase their activity
polygraph/lie detector
a device that records autonomic fluctuations while a subject is questioned
display rules
norms that regulate the appropriate expression of emotions