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110 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Human Brains are
Larger and more complex that other creatures
Can talk, walk and perfrom simple tasks, which means that human brains are just organized differently than chimps
We have a larger receptive surface for synaptic connections because
our somas and dendrites are much larger and spread further
Our neurons tend to form in
columns, which communicate internally and interct with distant columns - organizational complexity of our brain
Sally And bennet Shawitz
These are two people, a male and a female and they found out that women use both the left and right hemispheres of the brain for language
Sandra Witelson
(Doesn't that name sound old?) found out that middle aged women had more neurons than men in areas responsible for intracolumnar commuincation - adaptive for females to more easily differentiate tones
An organism functioning more effectively than previously or more effectively than other oorganisms
Parcellation Theory (Swen Ebbeson)
Think of parcell sheep...yes

A branch on two neurons can slowly vanish because it is nore necessary - gentic mutations
Founders Effect
A population which carries a specific mutation mores to an area where they now domenate
Progressive takeover
Just take over cause they're cooler and superier
Proximate Causes
In the immediate time frame, like someone gets hurt
Ultimate Cause
Evolutionary time frame - like someone dies so they don't pass on their genes
Efficient - eneergy in the system itself

Material - the physical structure of the state

Final - teleological cause - purpose

Formal - organization in time/space
We are much more receptive to
New stimuli because of neural programming
To tell exsition we know that
learning would have had to occur
Differential training
LIek the cheetah - trained to discriminate a black and white prety animal
If the cheetah got no reward cause it chased the wrong guy,m that would be
conditioned inhibition
Pavlov focues on what kind of causation
One-way, with like reflexes

Information -> Sense receptors -> nerve center -> reflex
Operant condition is like when an organism
well, it's an active organism model, which involves feedback in obtaining reinforcement and emphasizes the animal's motivation
Extinction is caused by
Internal inhibtion - like the internal process of the dog increaingly regarding the tone as irrelevant
Spontaneour Recovery
A concept that gave fise to the notion of internal inhibtion - randomly remember and responding to the conditioned stimulus
Primary Reinforces
Naturally provocative - like actual food or shock
being able to distinguish or differentiate 2 things
the things responded to are perceptually similar
The better a subject discriminates, the less it...
External inhibition
Like if there is a loud noise when a dog is supposed to reponsed to a tone, it likely wont perform well
Operant conditioning
Skinner - animals can move and around, experimenters observe the behavior and the organism is active with 2-way causation
Operant conditioning involves a procedure in which reinforcement follows the responses and
emits....rather than the unconditioned stimulus eliciting the unconditioned response
Trainig a dog to sit
Training a dog to walk on it's hind legs
Whole process of training a dog is
Cuccessive approximation
Intelligence panel
The box the animal interacts with - pressing these buttons is a shaped behavior
A fixed interval schedule caused pigeons
to do superstitious behavior - like cleaning themselves cause they thought it's what sent them food
Fixed ratio
Reward after behaving a certain number of times - works hard
Variable ratio
randomly rewarded depending on how many times it's pressed - works hard
Fixed interval
scalloping the rate of responses
Variable interval
Most effective - extinction takes a long time
Scary shit happening is
Acute stress
Normal everyday stress is
Chronic stress, which can cause a lot of problems
The affects of acute stress
serve to energize the body and divert energy to vital fight-or-flight functions
During acute stress there is a surge of ____ from the ____ which provides ____
During acute stress there is a surge of glucose from the liver which provides rapid enery to muscles
During acute stress there is supression of ____ to maintain elevated ____ levels
During acute stress there is supression of insulin to maintain elevated glusose levels
During acute stress ____ are constricted to aid transport of ____ to muscles and ____
During acute stress arteries are constricted to aid transport of nutrients to muscles and heart
During acute stress the heart rate is
Elevated, to increase transport to muscles and brain
During acute stess, there is a suppression of the _____ of _____ into stored ____ as fat
During acute stess, there is a suppression of the conversion of carbohydrates into stored glucose as fat
During acute stress there is pain ____, called ____
During acute stress there is pain suppression, called analgesia
During acute stress there is a maintaine of _______ via _____
During acute stress there is a maintaine of joint mobility via anti-inflammatory action
During acute stress there is a suppression of
During acute stress there is _____ conservation and inhibition of _______
During acute stress there is water conservation and inhibition of reproductive behavior
During acute stress the memory is
enhanced so the event isn't repeated
during acute stress, some stressors can cause
Stress circuits in the brain involve the ______ and the ______
Pituitary gland and hypothalamus
Walter Cannon
Well, a cannon has to be balanced to work - homeostasis - which is 2-way causeation, regulation, stress response
Hans Selye
Hans...doesn't he look good, imagine 3 guys in hans, cause there are 3 stages,

Alarm - neuroendocrine release of hormones

Resistance - repetitive combat situations

Exhaustion - like when prey are totally fatigued
The stress system is!
HPA - Hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis
the hypothalamus works like a ____ with __ -way causation
the hypothalamus works like a thermostat with 2-way causation
The hypothalamus
receives messages coming from the brain and in turn sends information to the peroaquaductal gray
Elevated glucose
makes energy avaiable to muscles
Stress-related hormones
Corisol and epinephrine activeate glucose release
Cortisol is awesome because it
Regulates stress-related body chemisty and wound management which is....analgeis (remember)
In order to elevate cortisol levels the _____ releases a hormone that enters the ______
In order to elevate cortisol levels the hypothalamus releases a hormone that enters the anterior pituitary
regarding cortisol, The anterior putitary causes the production of the hormone ____, which enters the blood stream and affects ______
regarding cortisol, The anterior putitary causes the production of the hormone adrenocorticotropin, which enters the blood stream and affects adrenal cortex
Cortisol is a
Cortisol has a half life of
2 hours - long pulse
Cortisol decreases
insulin production in the pancreas
Cortisol promotes the production of ______ in the ____
Cortisol promotes the production of glucagon in the pancreas
Cortisol blocks ____ receptors when activated
Neutrophils - this causes less swelling of surrounding tissue
Epinephrine =
After the perception of the stressor, a signal from the brain travels down the _____ and activates the _____ causing the release of ____
After the perception of the stressor, a signal from the brain travels down the spinal cord and activates the adrenal medulla causing the release of eprinephrine
Epinephrine release is a ______ pulse with a half life
short - 2 minute half life
Epinephrine acts directly on the ___ which stimulates the conversion of ____ into ____
Epinephrine acts directly on the liver which stimulates the conversion of glycogen into glucose
Periaquaductral grey (damn, that took a full breath to say)
directly stiumates an increase in heart rate, blood pressure and breating rates
Periaquaductral gray has to do with the release of
the activation of periaquaductral grey blocks
pain perception by preventing spinal cord transmission of pain messages (analgesia)
Periaquaductral gray has to do with the
freezing motion and chill you experience in dangerous situation
Releaesd from the posterior pituitary - effects various targets such as the kdineys, and causes water uptake by kidney tubules - basically prevents dehydration
If you experience early stressors
Later on in life your cortisol levels will go back to normal faster
Robert Sapolsky
-sounds like a crazy monkey, huh? He did research on alpha male baboons. THey has lower cortisol levels
What two things have an effect on memory?
Glucose and epinephrine
Passive avoidance
Like not going on vacation because you're afraid of airplanes
Paul Gold
he may be gold, but he did bad things

He set up water on other side of shock bridge and zapped little rats
When paul gold did his experiments
an intermediate surge of epinephrine and glucose caused latenceny to last longer and aniamls remembered more
Doreen Kimura
Japanese right? I'd have a hard time finding my way around, there's no chinese wall to follow

anyways, he said that women use landmarks
Christina Williams
Very typical they did typical 12-arm mazes, get it?

Females took longer ot learn but once they learned they had fewer errors
Vocal motor center
RA - bird song is expressed here
HVC + L-MAN -> RA -> Syrinx
Song learning + song regulation -> song production -> song
Testosterone -? aromatization -> ?
Estradiol, aromatization is the additon of a hydrogen
Hypothalamus projestions to PAG
Emission of beta-endorphins
Pain reduction
HPA Axis
Hypothalamis, pituitary, adrenal axis - Neuroendrocine system
LIke a hippo who hasn't hit puberty - this regulates pituitary activity via CRH (Corticotropic releasing hormone)
Corticotropic releasing hormone
Activiates ACTH (adrenocorticotropin) in anterior pitutary
Anterior pituitary
releases adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) into blood stream
Posterior Pitutary
Releases vasopressin, v is close to R
Sympathetic nervous system
brain projection down spinal cord to adrenal medulla releasing epinephrine
Adrenal cortex
target of ACTH (adrenosorticotropin) causing the emission of cortisol - which is a glucocorticoid which regualtes glucose release into the blood stream
Glycogen is converted to glucose by
Released by adrenal medulla - causes a releason of glucose into the blood stream
Causes water uptake in kidneys, prevents dehydration
Midbrain periaquaductral gray
causes immediate heart rate, blood pressure increase
Parcellation theory
Specialization/mutations in teh pattern of connectivity of neurones, better fitness in animal
Where did sandra witelson look
she looked at number of cells in the auditory association cortex
One way causation and eliciting
Operant condition
get to choose - emitted (two way)
process of becoming accustomed to a stimulus and reacting less
the process of behing shaken out of a process of habituation by a perceived change in the stimulus
the primary purpose of the HPA axis
is the cortisol - increasing glucose by stimulating the pancreas, which decreases the production of insulin, and also stimualting the transformation of fatty acids to glcose in the liver (by glucagon)
Remember that epinephrine has a lot to do with
Adrenal medulla
Midbrain periaquaductral gray
eleveates heart rate and blood pressure and pain reduction
A projection of the hypothalamus carries
direct relays into the PAG which causes teh release of beta-endorphrine that inhibit pain tranmission in the spinal cord