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131 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Social Psychology
How social rules, attitudes, relationships and group influence people to do things they wouldn't normally
Cultural Psychology
Study the broader influence of culture and ethnicity on roles and relationships in society
Social Norms
Rules about how we are supposed to act

They are enforced by punishment and reward
Social Rules
Positions people fill that are regulated by norms, such as gender, occupational, family roles
Milgrams Obedience Study
Looked at obedience to authority figures - shock tests, people often obeyed
Stanford Prison Study
People actually took on these rules
Why do we obey?
Want to be polite, Allocate responsibility to authority, Routinizing the task, entrappment
Attribution Theory
Explanation of the behavior of ourselves and others

Situational - environment explains problem

Dispositional - action of something in the person
Fundamental attribution error
We tend to overestimate personality traits, and blame the person, not the situtation
Attitudes... Explicit and Implicit
Attitudes are a belief and feelings about people, events and objects

Explicit - we are aware of our attitudes

Implicit - we are unaware
Self-Serving Bias
We are more likely to take credit for good actions and let situations account for our failures
Just-World Hypothesis
Attributions are affected by the need to think that the world is fair

Blame the victim of rape for wearing short skirt
Familiarity Effect
Seeing the same thing repeatedly increases positive feelings towards it
Validity Effect
Tendency to believe that a statement is true or valid simply because it has been repeated many times
Taking action or adopting attitudes as a result of real or imagined group pressure
Group Think
The tendency to think alike and suppress dissent in a group

Illusion of invulnerability - group believes it 100% correct
Self-censorship- dissenters keep quiet to avoid trouble
Pressure on dissenters to confirm
Illusion of unanimity - consenus
Diffusion of responsbility
tendency of members of a group to avoid taking action because they assume other will
Social Loafing
Tendency for a people working in a group to exert less effort
In groups or crowds, the loss of awareness of one's own individuilty
Social Facilitation
Improves performance in the presense of others - only works for taskes we are already good at
Negative stereotype and strong unreasonably dilike of a group
Psychological Functions
Wards off feeling of doubt and fear - use target as scapegoat for your problems or trouble
A cognitive schema or a summary impression of a group in which a person believes that all members of the group share a common trait
An inferred process within a person or animal that causes movement either toward a goal or away from an unpleasant sitation
Intrinsic motivation
Desire to do something for it's own sake and for the internal pleasure it provides
Extrinsic motivation
Desire to do something for the sake of external rewards
Motives for love
Need for affiliation
Tend to fall in love with people near to you in location
choose friends and loved ones who share attitudes, beliefs, values
Passionate Love
Turmoil of intense emotions and sexual tension

Crushes, infatuations
Companionate Love
Characterized by affection and trust
Sternberg created what?
The triangle theory of love
Attachment theory of love
Secure - rarely jealous or worried about being abandoned

Avoidant - Distrust and avoid intimate attachments

Anvious-ambivalent - always agitated about their imtimacy but worry about abandonment
Attachment theory based on how parents cared for you
Secure results from - warm close relationship with parents

Anxious-ambivalent - parents are both kind and harsh

Avoidant - parents very negative
Biology of desire
HORMONES! Testosterone..hormones affect behavior, but behavior also affects hormones. Also, psychological factors are just as important

Evoluntionary view says men are selected to inseminate as many females as possible
Motives for Sex
Partner Approval
Peer Approval
As age increases...
Intamcy and self-enhancement increases and peer or partner approval decreases
Sexual Scripts
Set of implicit rules that specify proper sexual behavior for a person in a given situation
Sexual Orintation
Mix of biological, environmental, cultural and other experiences
Form of sugar that when in low levels we feel hungry
% Heritability of weight
Set Point
The genetically influence weight range for an individual, maintained by biological mechanisms that regulate food intake, fat reerves and metabolism
Baseal Metabolism Rate
Rate that body burns calories
Fat Cells
Store fat for energy, can change in size, but not in number
An eating disorder characterized by episodes of excessive eating, followed by force vomiting
eating disorder characterized by fear of being fat, a distorted body image, radically reduced comsumption of food and emaciation
test to measure strenght of motivation, by McClelland
Goals best when..
challenging but acheivable
Performance Goals
framed in terms of performing well in front of others
Mastery Goals
framed in terms of increasing one's competence and skills
A person's belief that he or she is capable of producing desired results, such as mastering new skills and reaching goals
Maslows Pyramid of Needs
First Physiological needs, then safey needs, belonging and love needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization
Approach-Approach conflict
Equally attracted to two activities or goals
Avoidance-Avoidance conflict
Choosing between the lesser of the evils
Approach-avoidance conflict
one activity or goal has both postivie and negative elements
Germinal Stage
Conception - 14 days

Zygote -(fertilized Egg) divides and attaches to the uterus

Embryonic Stage
14 days to 8 weeks

Sexual Differentation

Testosterone secretion
Fetal Stage
8 weeks to birth

Further organ and nervous system development

Brain and NS develop most in last 12 weeks
Premature Birth
Less physically and cognitively developed

Up to 2 months early still has fighting chance
Noxious substance or factors that can disrupts prenatal development

X-rays: Disrupts development of brain cells
Drugs - Abnormal physical and psychological development
Alchohol - Mental retardation, facial disfigurement
Diseases - STDs, measles
Birthy - 2 years
Motor Reflexes
Rooting Reflex - look for nipple when cheek is touched

Moro Reflex - Cling inward when falling
Newborns can't focus on distance objects
Contact Comfort
Being touched and held effect us emotionally and physically
Harlows Monkeys
Babies monkeys much perferred soft mommy
Mary Ainsworth
Categorized the types of attachments between infant and caregiver
Separation Anxiety
When primary caregiver leaves baby or young child
Secure Attachment
Use caregiver as a secure base to explore - Reference caregiver when stranger arrives

Likely has caregiver that are constantly available
Insecure-Avoidance Attachment
Little regarder for caregiver, no referencing, often treat stranger like caregiver, no distress when caregiver leaves, Indifferent to caregivers return

Likely has caregiver that does not meet proximity seeking needs
Insecure-Anxious or Ambivalent Attachment
Cling to caregiver and do not explore, extreme distress when caregiver leaves, likely has caregivers that are inconsistently available
Cognitive Development
How we acquire knowledge and understand the world during our lives
Jean Piaget
Examined the strategies children used to think and solve problems
Mental network of associations, beliefs, and experiences about categories of things and people
Fit new information into and existing schema....example dogs
Modifying an exsiting schema in response to new information of experience
Sensorimotor Stage
Birth to 2 years

Learn through concrete actions - touching, hearing, looking

Coordinate senory experience and motor behavior
Object Permanence
Something continues to exist even if you cannot see or touch it
Symbolic Thought
Story about a dog, baby will point to dog
Preoperation stage
2 to 7 years
Language more sophisticated but still have trouble with mental manipulation of information
Inanimate objects have lifelike qualities (in preoperationl stage)
See the world only through their own perspective - in preoperational stage
Physical properties do not change even when their form or appearance does - cannot be grasped by children in preoperational stage
Concrete Operational
(7-11) years - Child learns to logically reason about objects. Understands conservation
Formal Operational
12-Adulthood, think in more abstract, idealistic and locial way
Theorist on moral development
Preconverntial Stage
Children has not internalized moral values
Guided by rewards and punishments
Conventional Stage
Importance of following societies rules and norms
Maintain social order, law, justice and duty
Post-Conventional Stage
Moral development is completely internalized

Thinks that certain laws or morals are themsleves unjust and must be changed
Gender Typing
Societies ideas about what abilities traits and behaviors are masculine or feminine
Period of Development between puberty and adulthood - Physiological changes - increase of androgens in boys, estrogens in girls

Maturation of sex organs and apparance of secondary secondary characteristics
Erikson's Stages of Development - Trust vs. Mistrust
Birth to 1 year - Treatment by caregivers creates trust in a good world
Erikson's Stages of Development - Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
1-3 years - Child is allowed to make independent decisions or is made to feel ashamed/full of doubt about own decisions
Erikson's Stages of Development - Initiation vs. guilt
3-6 years

Child either develops own purpose/direction or is made to feel guilty by overly controlling caregivers
Erikson's Stages of Development - Industy vs. Inferiority
6 to 11 years - Child either feels competent working with others or inferior
Erikson's Stages of Development - Intimacy vs. Isoltation
Young adulthood - Forming deep/intimate relationships with others or becoming socially isolated
Erikson's Stages of Development - Generativity vs. Self-absorption
40-65 years - Determining what to leave behind for future generations or failing to grasp a sense of meaning in life
Erikson's Stages of Development - Integrity vs. Dispair
65 and up - Feeling that life was worthwhile of feeling despair about one's life and fearing death
A set of Characterisitcs, emotional responces, thougths and behavior
Role of unconscios in personality
Extent to which individuals personalities differ from one another
Interactions between persons on their environments
Role of personal experiences and personal growth
Freud Structure of Personality
Conscious - Acute awareness

Preconscious - just under awareness, easily known

Unconscious - Well below awareness, difficult to know but very influential
Partly Conscious and unconscious

Functions on reality principles

Balances demands of id and superego
Completely unconscious or submerged - Functions on pleasure principle; immediate gratification of needs to reduce tension and discomfort
Centered in the pre-conscious; functions on more idealistic principle; our moral guide/conscience
Blocking out/prevention of anxiety, forcing anxiety back into the unconscious
Concocting a seemingly logical reason or excuse for a behavior that would otherwise be shameful or innapropiate
Attribution unaccptable quialities of the self to someone else
Direct Emotions towards things, animals, or others that are not the real objects of their feelings
Channeling impulses into constructive or admiable behavior
Reaction Formation
Warding off uncomfortable thoughts by overemphasizing the opposite
Person reverts to a previous phase of psychological development
Oral Stage
Birth to one year - Gratification is centered around the mouth
Anal Stage
2 to 3 years - Gratification is centered around the pleasure of defecation
Phallic stage
3 to 6 years - Awareness of genitals at this time

Oedipus Complex - desire towards same sex parent

Electra Complex - Girls discover that they do not have a penis and want one
6 to puberty; Sexual urges are repressed and transformed into socially acceptable activities
Puberty-Adulthood; successful resolution and development into a mature sexual relationship
Frued's theory sparked...
Psychoanalysis...whoo hoo!
Rorschack Inkblots
We we see reflects our inner feelings and conflicts
Thematic Apperception Tests
Asked to make up dramatic story about a picture; effective in identifying motivational states
A characteristic pattern of behavior
Trait Theory
Focus not on precesses that shape our personality but the extent to which individuals differ in their personality dispositions
Allport's Trait Theory - Cardinal traits
Affect every area of individuals life
Allport's Trait Theory - Central Traits
Influence many aspects of our lives, but not quite as pervasive
Allport's Trait Theory - Secondary traits
Affect narrower aspects of our lives - like favorite food being ice cream
Physciological dispositions to respond to the envirnoment in certain ways
Proportion of the total variance in a trait that is attributable to a genetic variation in a group
Internal Locus of Control
The perception that one controls one's own fate
External locus of control
The perception that outside forces determine one's fate
Humanistic Theory
Approach that emphasized personal growth, resilience and the achievement of human potential