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43 Cards in this Set

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What are the 3 necessary conditions to be diagnosed with a psychological disorder?
1.) must experience significant distress or pain
2.) the source of the problem resides in the person
3.)the problem cannont be a reaction to environmental problems (like poverty)
How many Americans suffer from a problem serious enough to be diagnosed with a psychological disorder?
1/3 - 1/2
in fractions
what is a psychological disorder? (def.)
your thoughts, feelings, or behaviors are thought to be dysfunctional and affects your every day life.
Explain the medical model.
Explains psychological problems in terms of biological problems and can be treated through medical treatment (medicine)
Explain the Psychological model
our problems are a result of our life's experience
Explain the Sociocultural model.
our problems are a esult of our culture and environment.
Explain the biopsychosocial model. (ynthetic model)
says psychological problems are a result of biological problems, psychological experiences, and our culture and environment. (combinations of all other three)
book calls is synthetisd model, combines them all
What are the dangers of diagnosing and labeling?
lack of reliability, biased clinical judgments, labels can be bad.., Rosenhan experiment
WHo was Rosenhan and what did he do?
ROsenhan and 7 others visited mental hospitals and said they heard voices saying things like "hollow, thud, and empty". They were diagnosed with schizophrenia and were admitted. It tok on average 19 days to get a discharge..took some longer. When said they heard other things they were criticized and the nurses told them it was ok.. they just thought it was because of the schizophrenia.
What are the Anxiety disorders we need to know?
Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Panic Disorder, Phobic Disorder (simple and social), Obsessive-compulsice Disorder
What is Koro?
Found in Asian males, long lasting panic attack; fear that their sexual organ will disappera into their body and that they will then die. It is culturally influenced.
What is GAD?
Generalized Anxiety Disorder: high levels of worrying with no identifyable source
What are the Somatoform Disorders we need to know?
Hypochondriasis, Conversion disorder,(know glove anesthesia too)
WHat is glove anesthesia?
when a person reports numbness int he hand but sensation in the arm. 4 different nerve-tracts provide sensation to both the hand and lower arm. The physical symptoms do not mathc the pysiological reality.
WHat is conversion disorder?
When a person temporarily loses bodily function in the absence of a physical cause (ex glove anesthesia)
Panic disorder:
characterized by sudden and intense rushes of anxiety, typically without a known cause. (have panic attacks, sweat etc..)Characterized as an anxiety disorder.
Phobic disorder. (what treatment is commonly used)
Fear of one particular object or thing. characterized by intense anxiety and fear. (treatment commonly used is: systematic desensitization)
What is a social phobia and a simple phobia?
Social phobia: a fear of being in social situations

Simple phobia: fear of one thing.
what is obsessive compulsive disorder?
have persistant thoughts (obsessions) and the need to perform repetitive acts (compulsions)
What are the 3 findings from cross-cultural comparisons?
1.) Anxiety is universal and is exhibited by the same bodily reactions.

2.) culture influences the cognitive component of anxiety. i.e. what people worry about about and their beliefs about the causes of it.

3.) Treatment needs to acknowlegde cultural diversity. (otherwise you may diagnose incorrectly)
What is a somatoform disorder?
When a person experiences bodily symptoms that are psychological in nature rather than medical or physical.
What is hypochodriasis?
sombody who has a preoccupation with their physical health and typically perceives things as worse than they really are. (blows things out of proportion - ex: headache equals breain tumor)
What are the Dissociative disorders we need to know?
Amnesia, fugue state, Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
what is Dissociative identity disorder? (DID)
more commonly known as multiple personality disorder. Typically occurs because someone has been pysically or sexually abused. The person will "dissociate" and become 2 or more distinct identities. (NOT THE SAME AS SCHIZOPHRENIA that is different)
What is a fugue state?
form of amnesia where someone forgets their own identity. they may travel to somewhere else and begin a new life. Typical of sever abuse victims.
What are the mood disorders we need to know?
Major depression,(know about suicide too)& Bipolar disorder
What is bipolar disorder?
type of mood disorder characterized by fluctuations from manie to depression
What is depression?
Characterized by feelings of sadness, worthlessness, hopelessness, low self esteem, dispair.

Other notes: depression is universal and rates are ont he rise. 24% of women and 15% of men have it. Seldom identified before adolescence, most commonly diagnosed in middle age. Episodes last about a few weeks.
What is schizophrenia?
a disorder that involves gross distortions of thoughts and preceptions and loss of contact with reality.

It is NOT multiple personalities.
What are the symtoms of schizophrenia?
1.)incohereant thinking,
2.)delusions ( false beliefs, ex: the CIA is after me.)
3.)Hallucination (sensory experiences that occur in the absence of actual stimulation. Are usually visual or auditory)
4.)Disturbance of Affect(emotional experience, flattened affect, sit for hours wear a blank expression, speak in a low monotone voice, show little concern or interest in anything)
5.) bizarre behavior
What does schizophrenia mean?
Gr. "split brain"
What are the 5 types of Schizophrenia
1.) Disorganized
2.) Catatonic
3.) Paranoid
4.) Undifferentiated
5.) Residual
(Subtype of scizphrenia) What is Disorganized?
A category used to decribe those who exhibit signs of illogical thinking, incoherant speech, a neglect or personal hygiene, exaggerated displays of emotion and mannerisms that are silly and childish
(Subtype of scizphrenia) What is Catatonic?
A rare form of the disorder that features extremes in motor behavior ranging from motionless "stupors" to bursts of hyperactivity.
(Subtype of scizphrenia) What is Paranoid?
A form in which the main symptom is being preoccupied with one or more delusions or hallucinations, often with extreme suspiciousness and hostility.
(Subtype of scizphrenia) What is Undifferentiated?
a catchall category for cases that exhibit a mixture of symptoms and not clearly fit into another type.
(Subtype of scizphrenia) What is Residual?
a dignostic category that is used for people who had prior episodes of schizophrenia but are currently not experienceing major symptoms
What are positive symptoms and examples?
Positive symptoms consist of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral EXCESSES. Ex: delusions, hallucinations, incoherant speech, bizarre behavior
What are negative symptoms and examples?
cognitive, emotional, and behavioral DEFICITS. Ex: apathy, blank looks, blunted affect, slowed movement and speech, social withdrawal.
What are the personality disorders we need to know?
Borderline, Antisocial
What is borderline personality disorder?
Characterized by emotional instability, as well as unstable relationships and a clear lack of indentity.

More common in women, often threaten suicide for attention
What is it called if you have more than one mental disorder?
Comorbidity
What did Zimbardo say in response to how the experiment related to individuals' life outside of prison?
The related it to SHYNESS