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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Abnormal behavior
Distressing to self or others (severity)
Dysfunctional to individual or society (interference with functioning)
Deviant from norms (legal or social)
individual characteristic of thought, feelings, behavior
constellation of symptoms an individual shows
individual diagnosticians reach the same conclusions using the same system

DSM-IV-TR: observable characteristics to maximize reliability
the extent to which the system’s categories are clinically meaningful
Psychological disorder
behavior is judged to be:
Chronic – time requirement
Severe – symptom criteria
Interfering with functioning – sometimes two areas needed (school, work, social, home, etc)
Not caused by medical condition
Biological Perspective
mental disorders as physical diseases
brain abnormalities
chemical imbalances
birth difficulties
Medical Model
concept that diseases have physical causes
can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured
assumes that these “mental” illnesses can be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and cured through therapy, which may include treatment in a psychiatric hospital, or through psychotropic medications
Psychodynamic Perspective
Sigmund Freud
Unconscious conflicts and drives
Early childhood trauma
therapy helps person become aware of underlying conflicts
Cognitive Perspective
conscious thoughts
learned maladaptive thought patterns cause mental disorder
Behavioral Perspective
learned maladaptive patterns of behavior cause mental disorder
Sociocultural Perspective
larger culture important to development of mental disorders
supporting evidence from culture-bound syndromes
Koro in Southeast Asia
Anorexia and Bulimia in North America and Western Europe
Bio-Psycho-Social Perspective
assumes that biological, sociocultural, and psychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders
Predisposing causesof Mental Disorders
in place before onset
make person susceptible
inherited characteristics
learned beliefs
sociocultural beliefs
Precipitating causes
immediate events that bring on the disorder (stress)
loss (e.g., loved one, job)
perceived threat
when predisposition high, precipitating event may be small
Maintaining causes
consequences of the disorder
keep disorder going once it begins
sometimes positive consequences (e.g., extra attention)
often negative consequences (e.g., lack of friends)
American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition)
a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders
presently distributed as DSM-IV-TR (text revision)
Neurotic Disorder (term seldom used now)
usually distressing but that allows one to think rationally and function socially
Psychotic Disorder
person loses contact with reality
experiences irrational ideas and distorted perceptions
Anxiety Disorders
Primary disturbance is distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
diffuse, vague feelings of fear and apprehension

*everyone experiences it
*becomes a problem when it is irrational, uncontrollable, and disruptive
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
More or less constant worry about many issues
The worry seriously interferes with functioning

Physical symptoms:
muscle tension
Intense, irrational fear that may focus on:
category of objects
event or situation
social setting
Specific Phobias
animals (e.g., snakes)
substances (e.g., blood)
situations (e.g., heights)
more often in females than males
Social phobias
fear of failing or being embarrassed in public

public speaking (stage fright)
fear of crowds, strangers
meeting new people
eating in public

*Considered phobic if these fears interfere with normal behavior
*Equally often in males and females
Development of Phobias
Classical conditioning
Large genetic component
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
Obsessions - irrational, disturbing thoughts that intrude into consciousness
Compulsions - repetitive actions performed to alleviate obsessions
Checking and washing most common compulsions
Heightened neural activity in caudate nucleus
Panic Disorder
Panic attacks - helpless terror, high physiological arousal
Very frightening - sufferers live in fear of having them
Agoraphobia often develops as a result
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Follows traumatic event or events such as war, assault, natural disaster
Symptoms include:
easily startled
Mood Disorders
Depressive disorders
depression of mood
Bipolar disorders
cycling between depression and mania (extreme euphoria)
Mood Disorders
Depressive disorders
*depression of mood

Bipolar disorders
*cycling between depression and mania (extreme euphoria)
Symptoms include:
feelings of worthlessness
changes in sleep
changes in eating
suicidal behavior
Major Depression
prolonged, very severe depression
lasts without remission for at least 2 weeks
less severe, but long-lasting depression
lasts for at least 2 years
Seasonal Affective Disorder
Cyclic severe depression and elevated mood

Seasonal regularity

Unique cluster of symptoms
intense hunger
gain weight in winter
sleep more than usual
depressed more in evening than morning
Bipolar Disorders
Cyclic disorders
Mood levels swing from severe depression to extreme euphoria (mania)
No regular relationship to time of year (like SAD)
Bipolar disorder is severe form
Cyclothymia is less severe form
Strong heritable component
Bipolar disorder often treated with lithium
Biological Bases for Depression
*Neurotransmitter theories

*Genetic component
more closely related people show similar histories of depression
Situational Bases for Depression
*Positive correlation between stressful life events and onset of depression

*Is life stress causal of depression?

*Most depressogenic life events are losses
spouse or companion
long-term job
Cognitive Bases for Depression
*A.T. Beck: depressed people hold pessimistic views of
the world
the future

*Depressed people distort their experiences in negative ways
exaggerate bad experiences
minimize good experiences
Dissociative Disorders
conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
Dissociative Identity Disorder
rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities

formerly called multiple
personality disorder
Comes from Greek meaning “split” and “mind”

‘split’ refers to loss of touch with reality
not ‘split personality’

a group of severe disorders characterized by:
*disorganized and delusional thinking
*disturbed perceptions
*inappropriate emotions and actions
S- Positive symptoms
Hallucinations (visual, auditory, tactile)
Delusions (false, but strongly held belief)
S- Negative symptoms
absence of normal cognition or affect (e.g., flat affect, poverty of speech)
S- Disorganized symptoms
disorganized speech (e.g., word salad)
disorganized behaviors
S- Delusions of persecution
‘they’re out to get me’
S- Delusions of grandeur
S- Delusions of being controlled
the CIA is controlling my brain with a radio signal
Paranoid type
delusions of persecution
believes others are
spying and plotting
delusions of grandeur
believes others are
jealous, inferior,
Catatonic type
unresponsive to surroundings, purposeless movement, parrot-like speech
Disorganized type
delusions and hallucinations with little meaning
disorganized speech, behavior, and flat affect
Biological Factors
Brain structure and function
enlarged cerebral ventricles and reduced neural tissue around the ventricles
PET scans show reduced frontal lobe activity
Dopamine implicated
Personality Disorders
*disorders characterized by *inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
*Not diagnosed before age 18
*Usually without anxiety, depression, or delusions
*Notoriously hard to treat
Antisocial Personality Disorder
disorder in which the person (usually man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members

may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist (“Catch Me If You Can”)
Borderline Personality Disorder
Pattern of instability in relationships, self-image, and impulsivity
Relationships characterized by dramatic swings between idealization and loathing
Suicidal gestures, self-mutilation common
Fatal Attraction (1987), Girl Interrupted (1999)
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Exaggerated sense of importance, need for admiration, lack of empathy
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Primarily inattentive
Primarily Impulsive-hyperactive
Combined Type
Autistic Spectrum Disorder
Neurological problem, no known “cure”
Can range greatly from low to high functioning
Impairments in social skills, behavioral functioning and communication skills