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76 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Behavioral
Focuses on observable behavior.
Watson;Skinner;Nurture.
Cognitive
Examines how people understand and think about the world.
Brain is like a computher; information processing.
Humanisitic
Contends that people can control their behavior and that they naturally try to reach their full potential.
Rogers;Maslow;free will
Pschodynamic
Believes behavior is motivated by inner, unconscious forces over which the person has little control.
Freud;Dreams
Scientific Method
The approach used by psychologits to systematically acquire knowledge and understanding about behavior and other phenomena of interest.
Naturalistic
Investigator simply observes some naturally occuring behavior and does not make a change in the behavior
Survey Research
A sample of people chosen to represent a larger group of interest are asked a series of questions about their behavior, thoughts, or attitudes.
Case Study
in-depth, intensive investigation of an individual or a small group of people.
Correlational research
Positive correlation: one increases, the other increases
Negative correlation: one increases, the other decreases
Informed Consent
Participants must sign document affirming that have been told the basic outlines and are aware of waht their participation will involve, what risks the experiment may hold, and the fact that their participation is purely voluntary and they may terminate at any time.
Experimental bias
Factors that distort the way the independent variable affects the dependent variable in an experiment.
Placebo
False treatment. The decaf.
Double-blind procedure
No one knows who drank the real coffee.
Neurons
Nerve cells, the basic elements of the nervous system.
Dendrite
A cluster of fibers at one end of a neuron that receive messages from other neurons
Axon
The part of the neuron that carries messages destined for other neurons.
Terminal Buttons
Small bulges at the end of axons that send messages to other neurons.
Myelin Sheath
A protective coat of fat and protein that wraps around the axon.
Neurotransmitters
Chemicals that carry messages across the synapse to the dendrite of a receiver neuron.
Serotonin
In brain.
Sleeping;mood;pain;depression
ACH
In brain, spinal cord.
muscle movement.
Dopamine
In brain.
Muscle and mental disorders;Parkinson's disease.
Endorphins
In brain, spinal cord.
Pain suppresion, pleasureable feelings, appetities.
Glutamate
In Brain, spinal cord.
Memory.
Cerebellum
The part of the brain that controls bodily balance.
Thalamus
The part of the brain located in the middle of the central core that acts primarilly as a busy relaty station, mostly for information concerning the senses.
Hypothalamus
Tiny part of the brain, located below the thalamus, that maintains homostasis and produces and regulates vital, basic behavior such as eating, drinking, and sexual behavior.
Reticular Formation
The part of the brain from the medulla through the pons made up of groups of nerve cells that can immediately activate other parts of the brain to produce general bodily arousal.
Cerebral Cortex
The "new brain," responsible for the most sophisticated information processing in the brain; contains the lobes.
Hippocampus
Initial storage of memory.
Amygdala
Emotions.
Pituitary Gland
Growth, hormones.
Medulla
Regulates Breathing and Circulation.
Temporal Lobe
Sound, understanding language.
Occipital Lobe
Vision, visual processing
Frontal Lobe
Executive position Lobe.
Pre-Frontal Lobe
Planning Things.
Darietal Lobe
Spacial Context/Relationships
Wernicke's Area
Language Apprehension.
Brocha's Area
Speaking. Produce speech verbally
Prosopagnosia
Can't recognize faces.
Stimulus
Form of energy in the environment ithat sense organs can detect
Sensation
Sense organs detect; Causes a chemical rxn
Perception
The interpretation and integration of the senses
Absolute threshold
Smallest intensity of a stimulus that must be present for the stimulus to be detected by the human receptor cells
Just Noticeable Difference
Smallest difference in stimulation required to discriminate 50% of the time
Sensory adaptation
An adjustment in sensory capacity of sensory responsivness
Weber's Law
Two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage to be perceived as different.
VISION: Stimuli
Light waves
VISION: Sensation
Visual Receptors Rods & Cones transmit light wave energy into electrical impulses
VISION: Perception
Impulses sent to occipital lobe & Primary visual cortex and then are interpreted.
Rods
Black/White/Gray. 120 million. FXN well under low illumination. Receptors in the retina that are sensitive to light
Cones
6 million. Color perception. Require large amount of light. In fovea.
Opponent-process Theory of Color Vision
The theory that receptor cells for color are linked in pairs, working in opposition to each other.
Ex: Yellow, Green, Black Flag
HEARING: Stimuli
Sound Waves
HEARING: Sensation
Movement of Hair cells
HEARING: Perception
When it hits the Temperal Lobe
Gestalt
A series of principles that describe how we organize bits and pieces of information into meaningful wholes
Closure
A need to fill in the blanks.
Proximity
Grouping things according to proximity
Similarity
Elements similar in appearance we perceive as grouped together.
Simplicity
Looking for the simplest shape first
Top-Down Processing
Perception that is guided by higher-level knowledge, experience, expectations, and motivations
Bottom-Up Processing
Perception that consists of recognizing and processing information about the individual components of stimuli
Perceptual Constancy
Physical objects are perceived as unvarying and consistent despite changes in their appearance or in the physical environment.
Consciousness
Awareness of one's surroundings, of one's self, of one's thoughts and feelings
Altered States of Conscoiusness
Hypnosis, Meditation, Sleeping, Substance Induced, Day dreaming
Unconscious Wish Fullfillment
Manifest content, latent content.
Dreams for Survival Theory
Studies on learning new skills before sleeping
Activation Synthesis Theory
it's random Electrical Stimulation
Sleep Apnea
Stop Breathing
Stimulants
Cocaine, Benzedrine, Dexedrine
Depressants
Alcohol, Rohypnol
Narcotics
Heroin, Morphine
Hallucinogens
Marijuana, LSD, MDMA(Ecstasy)
Binge Drinking
Men: 5 drinks per hour.
Women: 4