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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
anorexia nervosa
- relentless pursuit of thinness through self-starvation, even unto death
- eating sidorder that affects up to 1% of young people in Wern societies (mostly female)
clinical amnesia
- memory disorder
- produced by brain damage
- patient must be hospitalized
- a set of procedures designed to let us separate true claims about the world from mere opinion
testable hypothesis
- allows us to make specific predictions about what we will find, given a particular set of circumstances
- specific enough so that we can know with certainty what facts would confirm the hypothesis
when the facts are not consistent with the prediction, the hypothesis is...
results are consistent with predictions, the hypothesis is... (NOT proven)
- run the same procedure with a new group of participants
- successful, implies nothing peculiar about the initial study, the results are reliable
anecdotal evidence
evidence that has been informally collected and reported
report bias
a tendency for some observations to be reported, while other observations are not
file-drawer problem
studies with encouraging results are often published, while studies with disappointing results are dumped into a "file drawer" and never seen/announced
confirmation bias
recalling more of the success stories if success is expected, more failures if the opposite is expected.
dependent variable
- the variable that we measure
- results that we're looking for
independent variable
- the variable whose effects we wish to examine
- what we control
experimental group
introduce the experiment to these participants
experimental manipulation
changing circumstances to test the outcome
control group
provides a basis for comparison
placebo effect
effects caused by someone's beliefs or expectations about a drug or therapy
demand characteristics
if there are cues in the situation during an experiment which signal that one response is more desirable than another, and participants respond accordingly
double-blind design
neither the investigator nor the participants know who is in the experimental group and who is in the control group
uncontrolled factors that could influence the comparison between the experimental and control consitions

(eg: the time of the test)
internal validity
only if the experiment successfully measures what it is intended to measure, all confounds are removed
random assignment
guarantees that experimental groups are matched
within-subject comparisons
- using the same people for two groups, guaranteeing that the two groups are identical
- comparing participants' behavior in one setting to the same participants' behaior in another setting
between-subject comparisons
using two different groups of people for experiments
experimental studies
studies in which an investigator randomly assigns participants to one group or another, then deliberately manipulates some variable and observes the results
observational studies
the investigator observes key factors, rather than manipulating them direcly
correlational studies
- the investigator seeks to observe the relationship (or correlation) between two variables (IV/DV)
- the experiment is to determine whether the DV depends on the IV
third-variable problem
perhaps a third factor (other than the DV/IV) is causing both to change
remember it!!
Three categories of research
1) experiments
2) observations
3) case studies
investigators have studied just a small number of participants, but want to draw conclusions that apply to a vast number of people
external validity
valid if its participants, stimuli, and procedures adequately reflect the world as it is outside of the investigation
all members of a given group
a subset of the population
random sampling
a procedure in which every member of the population has an equal chance of being picked for inclusion in the study
informed consent
before the study begins, participants must be fully informed about what their task will involved, any riss, and be allowed to leave at any time
at the end of the experiment, - all hidden manipulation or deception must be revealed and explained.
- investigator must try to undo any manipulations.