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53 Cards in this Set

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behaviorism
founded by John B. Watson.

an idea based on the principle that scientific psychology should only study behaviors that are entirely observable.

psychologists completely abandon the study of consciousness for the study of directly observed behaviors.

Watson believed that behavior is largely governed by environment and downplayed the role of heredity.

contributed to the rise in the amount of psychological research done on animals; they believed that experiments were more productive this way because more control could be placed over the subjects.
Dualism
the idea that the body and mind are distinct entities.
Empiricism-
belief that psychology’s conclusions should not be based on speculation, common sense, or reasoning, but on direct observations.
Functionalism-
founded by William James;

based upon the belief that psychology should focus on the function and purpose of consciousness rather than the structure.

believed that consciousness is a continuous flow of thoughts and were more intrigued by how people act in the real world than by experiments performed in labs.
Gestalt Psychology-
founded by Max Wertheimer;

based on the idea that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.

challenged structuralism’s concentration in breaking down consciousness into its basic components by demonstrating that the whole is what carries the most significance.
Humanism-
Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow led this approach to psychology.

emphasizes the unique qualities and potential for personal growth that all humans have.

takes an optimistic approach to human nature and believe that animal research has little relevance to human behavior.

contributed to psychology with their innovations in psychological disorder treatments.
Psychiatry-
the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders.
Psychoanalytic Theory-
developed by Sigmund Freud to explain mental disorders, motivation, and personality by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior.
Psychology-
science that studies physiological and cognitive processes and their influence on behavior.

a profession that applies the knowledge of such processes to practical problems.
Theory-
a string of interrelated ideas that are used to explain a set of observations.
Control group-
consists of subjects that are similar to those of the experimental group, but that do not receive the same treatment.

serve as comparisons to experimental groups.
Correlation-
the relationship between two variables. For example, the relationship between hours studied and grades received
Dependent variable-
variable that is assumed to be affected by manipulation of independent variable.

For example, in a study to determine the effectiveness of pain medication, the amount/degree of pain would be influenced by the medication, therefore making it the dependent variable.
Double-blind procedure-
aims to eliminate the chance of bias during experiments by neither allowing those conducting the experiment, nor the subjects, to know who is/who isn’t in either the control or experimental group.
Experimental group-
group of subjects involved in a study that receive treatment in regard to the independent variable.

For example, in an experiment studying the benefits of a new vitamin on people, those receiving the vitamin would be in this group.
Independent variable-
variable that is manipulated to produce different or desired outcomes during an experiment. For example, the pain medication or the vitamin used in the above examples.
Naturalistic observation-
research method that requires the researcher to observe behavior as it would naturally occur outside of an experiment. The researcher must not intervene with the subject during observation. For example, studying the behavior of unaware first graders in the classroom from behind a one-way mirror
Operational definition-
description of the actions and operations that will be made in order to control or measure a variable.
Placebo effect-
experience of change in a subject that is contributed towards their expectations during the experiment despite having been given a false treatment. For example, an increased feeling of happiness in people suffering from depression that believed they were receiving a new anti-depressant drug, but were really receiving sugar pills, would illustrate this
Replication-
the replication and repetition of an earlier study to determine whether or not the results may be duplicated.
Sample-
in an empirical study, the collection of subjects selected for observation.
Statistics-
the interpretation, summarization, and organization of numerical data by use of mathematics.
Autonomic nervous system (ANS)-
Controls involuntary body functions such as those of the heart and intestines.

also controls blood flow and regulates digestion
Cerebral cortex-
The outer layer of the brain which controls thought processes, planning, emotion, and perception.
Corpus callosum-
A thick band of nerve fibers that connects the right and left hemispheres of the brain and allows them to communicate.
Endorphins-
Chemicals that are naturally produced by the brain and relieve pain and improve mood.
Forebrain-
The forward-most area of the brain that controls one’s highest intellectual functions such as motor movement, memory, and thought processes.
Hormones-
Chemical messengers secreted by the endochrine system that travel in the bloodstream to other parts of the body.

carry information and commands to the body’s cells and regulate various functions such as digestion and growth.
Hypothalamus-
Area of the brain that controls the endocrine system and pituitary gland as well as other bodily functions like eating, sleeping, body temperature, and sexual behavior.
Neurons-
Nervous system and brain cells that carry impulses between other cells and control body functions and behavior.
Neurotransmitters-
Chemicals (dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, acetylcholine) that are produced by neurons and carry messages between cells and the brain by transmitting information to other neurons.
Parasympathetic division-
Part of the nervous system that conserves energy and puts the body into a resting state by lowering heart rate, stimulating digestion, dilating blood vessels, and constricting pupils.
Phenotype-
An organism’s observable characteristics such as hair color and eye color.
Split-brain surgery-
Involves cutting the corpus callosum and therefore, preventing the right and left hemispheres of the brain to communicate.

often used to treat epilepsy.
Sympathetic division-
Part of the nervous system that prepares the body for action by increasing blood pressure, speeding up heart rate and breathing, and slowing digestion.
Synapse-
The gap between two neurons which impulses are passed through
axon
The long, hairlike extension of a nerve cell that carries a message to the next nerve cell
dendrite
Extensions from the neuron cell body that take information TO the cell body.
agonist
A molecule that activates a receptor
afferent
The portion of the peripheral nervous system that carries information from the organs and tissues of the body to the central nervous system
efferent
Carrying impulses away from the central nervous system
CT
A type of imaging scan that shows the internal structure of a person’s brain
PET
An imaging scan that measures the activity or functional level of the brain by measuring its use of glucose
EEG
a test used to detect and record the electrical activity generated by the brain
MRI
a diagnostic procedure that uses a magnetic field to provide three-dimensional images of internal body structures.
Wernicke's area
Refers to the upper back of the temporal lobe. Here the brain converts thoughts into language
broca's area
The brain region located in the frontal lobe of the left hemisphere that is important for the production of speech
weber's law
the concept that a just-noticeable difference in a stimulus is proportional to the magnitude of the original stimulus; "Weber's law explains why you don't notice your headlights are on in the daytime"
fechner's law
the concept that the magnitude of a subjective sensation increases proportional to the logarithm of the stimulus intensity
liner perspective
Apparent convergence of parallel lines with increasing distance in a two dimensional image
motion parallax
objects that are closer to us move farther across our field of view than do objects that are in the distance
convergence
Movement of two eyeballs inward to focus on an object moved closer. The nearer the object, the greater is the degree of convergence necessary to maintain single vision.
accomodation
Eye's ability to automatically change focus from seeing at one distance to seeing at another